America







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Canadian
Opinion of the US
- US cable - 2003: LINK ¤ 03OTTAWA723

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  • "only 25 percent of Canadians believe that US foreign policy "considers others""

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "when making international policy decisions"

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "Canadians are critical of the US in the economic sphere"

 

 

 

 

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  • "56 percent dislike "American ideas about business practices""

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "68 percent believe that the US does "too little to solve problems""

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "related to the gap between rich and poor countries"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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new
US Foreign Policy Tone - US cable - 2009:
LINK ¤ 09OTTAWA634

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  • "a national columnist on the new Obama Administration: "it was hugely important for Canadians to set a new tone""

 

 

 

 

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  • "you can't underestimate that because Bush's rhetoric off"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "for us or against us"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "and "wanted: dead or alive""

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "went over very badly in Canada"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "many also gave strong praise to President Obama's Cairo speech"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "it was widely and favorably noted in Canada"

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "most participants expressed a keen desire to understand better"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "what the US Secretary means by a "new global architecture""

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Canadian Banks weathering Financial Crisis
- US cable - 2008:
LINK ¤ 08TORONTO66

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  • "the IMF reports that Canada's banking system is among the world's most highly developed"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "and is well-positioned to withstand a broad range of shocks"

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "including turmoil stemming from the US sub-prime mortgage meltdown"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Canada's economic Health - US cable - 2008: LINK ¤ 08OTTAWA1372

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  • "Canada's macroeconomic indicators are largely healthy (the global financial crisis aside). This country's history of cautious"

 

 

 

 

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  • "highly-regulated financial operations"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "now looks "prescient" rather than "outmoded""

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "among a host of different reserve and capital base requirements"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "Canada never separated investment banks from retail banking operations"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "and thus all brokerages are part of the financial empires controlled by Canada's five major retail banks"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "this means that even investment and brokerage operations"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "must meet the regulatory requirements pertaining to retail banking operations"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Green Shift
Carbon Tax - US cable - 2008:
LINK ¤ 08OTTAWA833

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  • "Dion deliberately portrayed his plan less as a carbon tax"

 

 

 

 

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  • "than as a fundamental shift or "fiscal reform" of the Canadian tax system"

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "dovetailing the Green Shift with a anti-poverty plan"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "rather than paying more Canadians would pay differently"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "Canadians are ahead of their politicians"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "are looking for leadership on climate change"

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "and are "ready to do the right thing" for the environment and for the economy"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "the carbon tax will be applied at the wholesale level on all fossil fuels"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "based on their level of emissions"

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "the tax will be set at US$ 10 per ton of "greenhouse gas emissions""

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "rising to US$ 40 per ton in the fourth year"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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IPCC Report - US cable - 2007: LINK ¤ 07OTTAWA639

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  • "the IPCC (UN Climate Report) has presented further scientific evidence"

 

 

 

 

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  • "on the challenges the world is facing and will continue to face with climate change"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "Canada's new government recognizes that leadership on this issue"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "means real action must begin at home"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "we also realize that for the global community to make real progress on climate change"

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "governments, industries and citizens from around the world must work together"

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "and we must do so now"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Regulatory Framework for Emissions
- US cable - 2007:
LINK ¤ 07OTTAWA795

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  • "the greenhouse gases (GHG) plan's targets will force significant action by Canada's main industry sectors:"

 

 

 

 

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  • "mandatory targets will require industry to reduce the intensity of GHG emissions by 18 percent"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "from current levels by 2010 and a further 2 percent annually thereafter"

 

 

 

 

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  • "effective future international cooperation on climate change"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "will require all major emitting countries"

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "to do their part to reduce emissions"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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California Greenhouse Gas Law - US cable - 2006: LINK ¤ 06BRASILIA2150

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  • "in a move backers hope will change the US approach to the problem of global warming"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger signed a law"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "to reduce the state's greenhouse gas emissions"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "we have begun a bold new era of environmental protection here in California"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "that will change the course of history"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "the most populous US state seeks to reduce its emissions to 1990 levels by 2020"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "a cut of about 25 percent"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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WTO Hong Kong
- US cable - 2005:
LINK ¤ 05OTTAWA3747
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[world trade organization]

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  • manufacturers: "we would have preferred a far more ambitious result"

 

 

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  • "we still want to see an ambitious agreement on industrial tariffs that cuts deeply into applied rates"

 

 

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  • "in both developed and emerging countries"

 

 

 


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  • world business leaders: "on industrial goods, WTO members must agree to substantially reduce remaining barriers on all industrial goods"

 

 

 

 




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  • development NGO: "while the commitment to end agricultural export subsidies is a welcome achievement (if a distant prospect)"

 

 

 

 

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  • "the problem is that there was no real movement on domestic subsidies"

 

 

 

 


 

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  • "it is worth asking what developing countries got out of this meeting"

 

 

 


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  • "the Doha Round has since its inception been sold as a ticket out of poverty"

 

 

 

 

 


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  • "the harvest for the poor was pretty meagre"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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London G-20 Meeting - US cable - 2009: LINK ¤ 09OTTAWA161
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  • "no Canadian bank is anywhere near collapse"

 

 

 

 


 

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  • "Canada's regulatory oversight has strict reserve and capital requirements"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "and banks are well-capitalized"

 

 

 

 

 



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  • "in general terms, Canada wants to help stabilize the international financial system"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "and create greater transparency"

 

 

 

 

 



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  • "it believes that the current structures, including the International Monetary Fund"

 

 

 

 


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  • "could be put to better use"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 



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Finance Minister Flaherty has reiterated five necessary steps that have to be taken globally:









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  • "regulating all pools of capital that rely on leverage"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "making sure the transparency requirements are in place"

 

 

 

 

 


 

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  • "those transparency requirements are the price of admission to the global markets"

 

 

 

 

 


 

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  • "creating capital and liquidity buffers large enough"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "to handle big shocks with strong balance sheets similar to the Canadian system"

 

 

 

 

 



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  • "ensuring regulation looks at the system as a whole"

 

 

 

 

 


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  • "not just individual institutions"

 

 

 

 

 



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  • "making market infrastructure more transparent and resilient"

 

 

 

 

 



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  • "and strengthening international cooperation, review and surveillance"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "to create a better second line of defence"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "Bank of Canada Governor Carney has stated"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "that US and European banks should bring their asset-to-capital ratio (leverage ratio)"

 

 

 

 


 

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  • "to the 20-to-1 levels of Canadian banks"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


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- Financial Crisis Inquiry Report -



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  • "the crisis was the result of human action and inaction"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "not of Mother Nature or computer models gone haywire"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "the captains of finance and the public stewards of our financial system"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "ignored warnings and failed to question, understand, and manage evolving risks"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "within a system essential to the well-being of the American public"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "more than 30 years of deregulation and reliance on self-regulation by financial institutions"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "championed by former Federal Reserve chairman Alan Greenspan and others"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "and actively pushed by the powerful financial industry at every turn"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "had stripped away key safeguards"

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "which could have helped avoid catastrophe"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "this approach had opened up gaps in oversight of critical areas with trillions of dollars at risk"

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "such as the shadow banking system"

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "and over-the-counter derivatives markets"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "the financial industry itself played a key role in weakening"

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "regulatory constraints on institutions, markets, and products"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "as of 2007, the five major investment banks"

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "Bear Stearns, Goldman Sachs, Lehman Brothers, Merrill Lynch, and Morgan Stanley"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "were operating with extraordinarily thin capital"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "their leverage ratios were as high as 40 to 1"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "meaning for every US$ 40 in assets, there was only US$ 1 in capital to cover losses"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "the multitrillion-dollar repo lending market"

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "off-balance-sheet entities"

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "and the use of over-the-counter derivatives"

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "were hidden from view"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "without the protections we had constructed to prevent financial meltdowns"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "we had a 21st-century financial system"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "with 19th-century safeguards"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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AMERICA
- Wikipedia EN: LINK ¤ AMERICA

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  • "the Americas, or America - also known as the Western Hemisphere - are the combined continental landmasses of North America and South America"

 

 

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  • "along with their associated islands, they cover 8.3% of the Earth's total surface area"

 

 

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Americas
-
Map: LINK ¤ WIKIMEDIA
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america - 1430AM
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