Ethical Trade





a Framework for Ethical International Trade - Christian Felber:

 

 

 

_________________________________________

 

 

 

 

 

  • "trade is not a goal in and of itself ! - the term "free trade" is subsequently a misnomer !"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "equally, protection is not a goal in and of itself ! - that is why "protectionism" is also a misnomer !"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "trade is valuable and protection makes sense, but none of them should be taken to the extreme"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "it would be blind and destructive, to carry international division of labor to its logical end:"

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "everything that is produced anywhere is exported and everything that is consumed, is imported from somewhere else. Export ratios would be 100%"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "likewise, it would be blind and harmful to close down borders and stop trade completely"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "in the public debate, nobody is calling for either of these extremes"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "nevertheless, the terms "free trade" and "protectionism" refer to exactly these extremes"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "a reasonable trade policy regards trade as a means !"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "and enhances it, where it helps to achieve the diverse goals of economic, social, and ecological policy !"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "it limits and regulates trade !!!"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "when it conflicts with these diverse and legitimate policy goals - which should be protected"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "trade is a tool, a means - which can be utilized in a destructive, or in a constructive fashion"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "depending on how trade policy is implemented - either the positive or negative effects will come to fruition"

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "trade in slaves, children, organs or poisonous waste is forbidden - and few would argue to the contrary"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "trade policy must abide by the fundamental values guiding society !!!"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "from human dignity to sustainable development to the common good !!!!!"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________







we therefore call for an Ethical Trade Policy !

 

 

 

_________________________________________

 


 

 

  • "1.: an international trade regime - that serves the "universal good of the whole" - can be regarded a global public good"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "its rules have to be democratic, transparent, fair, and sustainable !"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "the best place for such a public good to be anchored, is the United Nations Organization"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "the UNO is the core of the international law and it provides all necessary frameworks for an efficient and just trade regime:"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "human rights, labour norms, environmental agreements !!!"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "climate protection - and sustainable development goals !!!"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "the "WTO treaties" that were concluded outside the UNO - ( to avoid these existing global standards and policies !!! )"

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "should fade out - in the same way as bilateral and regional treaties with an trade-is-an-end-in-itself approach"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "particularly the US and the EU should not aim at an agreement outside the UN system (TTIP, TTP), but should work to strengthen it"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "and serve as role models !"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

______________________________________________________________________________

 

2.: Trade should serve universal Goals and Values - starting with Human Rights:

 

 

 

_________________________________________

 

 

 

 

  • "the goals for which trade is a means are: the full implementation of all human rights !"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "Sustainable Development Goals, rights of the Nature !"

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "cultural diversity, as well as frequent constitutional values such as justice, solidarity, and human dignity !"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "those countries that ratify and comply with UN conventions and agreements"

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "on human rights, labour norms, tax cooperation, environmental and climate protection, cultural diversity, ..."

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "and who agree on a "UN Ethical Trade Agreement” ( ie. initially 30 countries ) protect their higher commitments and standards both against non-ratifiers and non-compliers"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "they can, for example, place a 20% custom on imports from countries - that have not ratified a particular human rights agreement"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "a 10% tariff for countries - that have not ratified climate agreements"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "and 3% - for each core labor standard set by the International Labor Organization ( ILO )"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "this ethical tariff system creates an incentive to ratify and comply with the existing UN agreements"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "the consequence is a "level playing field” concerning human rights, labor norms, social security, and environmental protection"

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "and sufficiently high walls of protection against dumpers, freeriders and true "opponents of globalization""

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "finally, "soft" UN regulations in the area of human rights, worker’s rights and climate justice"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "will become "hard" international law !!!"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

______________________________________________________________________________

 

3.: non-Reciprocity between unequal Trade Partners:

 

 

 

_________________________________________

 

 

 

 

  • "historically, all “industrial” countries have used protectionist measures - protectionism made economic development possible in the first place"

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "( up until 1945, the US imposed duties on imports of up to 45% )"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "today, wealthy countries in the WTO, are calling for "free trade" between countries with a lower degree of industrial and technological development"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "this is obviously unfair !!!"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "poorer countries should be able to sufficiently protect their markets until they have "caught up" to the "industrialized" countries"

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "they should be able to use the same "ladder" to get over the wall of development, that other countries previously took advantage of"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

______________________________________________________________________________

 

4.: democratic Freedom - instead of "one Size fits all" Dogma:

 

 

 

_________________________________________

 

 

 

 

  • "development strategies framed around self-determination and individual design are very important - and often more efficient than "one-size-fits-all" strategies"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "this concept include that: trade partners cannot take legal actions against democratically-legitimized regulations"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "neither on the basis of "WTO" or bilateral treaties !"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "that investors cannot challenge "indirect expropriation" nor "unfair treatment""

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "and that sovereign countries are not limited in regulating investment - according to their needs and political priorities"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "as for a principle, no country should be forced to open its markets more than it wants to"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "or in ways that could be detrimental to its own economic policy goals"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • Dani Rodrik coined the slogan: "we need smart globalization !!! - ( not maximum globalization )"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

______________________________________________________________________________

 

5.: Localization, economic Subsidiarity, Resilience, and cultural Diversity:

 

 

 

_________________________________________

 

 

 

 

  • "it is preferable, that countries are economically independent as much as possible"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "and import specialized goods and services primarily through the "global market""

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "globalization must be the salt in the local economic soup !!!"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "( and not the other way around ( when trade was an end in itself ( “free trade” )))"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "whoever bakes their bread themselves, and also grows the grain themselves - is independent of fluctuations and crises"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "this applies to virtually all parts. Division of labour should be the well-reasoned exception, not an efficiency- and profit-driven rule"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "economic dependencies should be kept to a minimum !"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • John Maynard Keynes: "ideas, knowledge, science, hospitality, travel - these are the things which should of their nature be international"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "but let goods be homespun - whenever it is reasonably and conveniently possible"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

______________________________________________________________________________

 

6.: Commitment to even Trade Balances:

 

 

 

_________________________________________

 

 

 

 

  • "principles 4 and 5 could invite countries to implement mercantilistic strategies - to limit importations or promote exportations at the cost of others"

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "creating trade imbalances and global injustice"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "Lord Keynes, recognizing that trade imbalances lead to global instability"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "provided a clear tool for an international trade equilibrium, which could be properly implemented within the UN"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "the so-called "Clearing Union", which he proposed, would calculate all internationally traded goods and services in a new currency"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "called "Bancor" ( today, we could call it "Globo" or "Terra" )"

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

_________________________________________

  • "this global reserve does not replace - but complement national currencies for the international economic exchange"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "Keynes proposed that both countries with a trade deficit and a surplus would either re/devalue their currency or pay a fine according to the deviation"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "an agreement on even trade balances is the core of a fair global trade agreement"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "again, every country is free to be as open/closed as it wishes, it just cannot enhance exportations or limit importations at the cost of others"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "Keynes tools turn global trade competition - into economic cooperation !!!"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

______________________________________________________________________________

 

7.: limiting the Size of transnational Corporations:

 

 

 

_________________________________________

 

 

 

 

  • "transnational corporations have become too large and too powerful today - and present a danger to freedom and democracy"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "they are harming people - and societies !"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "corporations should, therefore, be required to live up to their responsibilities towards society by:"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "a) - growing only to a certain size ( e.g. maximum turnover / total assets of US$ 50 billion )"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "b) - obtaining only a certain percentage of the world market ( e.g. 0,5% )"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "c) - democratizing internal structures ( when they become larger ( progressive atomization of property and voting rights ))"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "d) - be required to complete a "Common Good Balance Sheet""

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "the result of this ethical balance sheet will provide companies with legal incentives by reducing their taxes, customs"

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "and by helping them in the areas of public procurement, grants and loan conditions"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "companies that fail to meet these standards, lose access to the "ethical trade zone" within the United Nations"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "once these standards become commonplace, the concentration of power and the proliferation of corruption will decrease"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "furthermore, the common good balance sheet will invert a race to the bottom on "global markets""

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "into a race to the top !!!"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "the better its result, the freer companies can trade and invest or get market access"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "the poorer the result, the higher the difficulties they encounter - from tariffs to denial of market access"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "the "license to trade" - depends on a company’s contribution to the common good !!!!!"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "as a consequence, ethical companies will win over less ethical ones - creating an ethical market economy !"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "an economy for the common good !!!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

______________________________________________________________________________

a Framework for Ethical International Trade - Christian Felber: LINK ¤ HUFFINGTON POST

_________________________________________

 

  • "Christian Felber is the founder of the "Economy for the Common Good" - the economist is author of 15 books"

 

 

______________________________________________________________________________







ethical trade - 14041ET
designed by Free CSS Templates | powerd by pluck | hosted by akis