Garden








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  • "Japanese Gardens are traditional gardens, whose designs are accompanied by spiritual and philosophical ideas"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "highlighting the natural landscape ! - and the Nature !!!!!!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "Japanese Gardens have always been conceived as a representation of the natural setting"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "the Japanese have always had a spiritual connection with their land - and the spirits that are one with the Nature !!!"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "the main "purpose" of a Japanese Garden is to be a space, that captures the natural beauties of the Nature !!!"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "the serenity of a Japanese landscape, and the simple but deliberate structures of the gardens"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "are what truly make the gardens unique !!!"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "plants and worn, aged materials are generally "used" by garden designers to reminisce the olden and faraway natural landscape"

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "and to express the breakability of existence as well as time's unstoppable advance"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "art inspires the gardens: "nihonga", Japanese painting - "ikebana", flower arrangement - "chado", tea ceremony - "Shinto", "Buddhist", and Taoist cosmological ideas"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • landscape gardener Mirei Shigemori: "each significant garden was created, with the cutting-edge spirit of the time !"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "the quintessential element of a Japanese Garden is:"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "the primordial power, that is attributed to the Nature !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "the aesthetic of Japanese Gardens was influenced by the distinct characteristics of the landscape: rugged volcanic peaks"

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "narrow valleys, mountain streams with waterfalls and cascades, lakes, and beaches of small stones"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "they were also influenced by the rich variety of flowers and different species of trees - particularly evergreen trees"

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "and by the four distinct seasons in Japan, including hot, wet summers and snowy winters"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "the "promenade garden" is meant to be seen one landscape at a time, like a scroll of painted landscapes unrolling"

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "features are hidden behind hills, trees groves or bamboo, walls or structures"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "to be discovered !!! - when the visitor follows the winding path !"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "landscape gardener Seyemon Kusumoto wrote, that the Japanese generate "the best of nature's handiwork""

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "Japanese Gardens have their roots in the religion of "Shinto", the creation - and of the "shinchi", the lakes of God"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "prehistoric shrines to the "kami", the spirits, are found on beaches and in forests all over the island"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "Japanese Gardens are also strongly influenced by the Buddhism - to live in perfect harmony with the Nature !!!!!!!!!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "in a perfect world !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Gardens of the Heian Period
(794-1185):

 

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  • "in 794, at the beginning of the "Heian" Period, the Japanese court moved its capital to "Heian-kyo" ( present-day Kyoto )"

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "the residence and the ceremonial buildings were situated in the north - and the main garden to the south"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "there were two long wings to the south, like the arms of an armchair, with the garden between them"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "the gardens featured one or more lakes connected by bridges and winding streams"

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "and a large empty area of white sand or gravel - the white sand represents purity"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "and is a place, where God can be invited to visit !!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "the gardens were water gardens, where visitors promenaded in elegant lacquered boats, listening to music, viewing the distant mountains"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "singing, reading poetry, painting - and admiring the scenery of the garden !"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "near the end of the "Heian" period a new garden architecture style appeared - these were called "Paradise Gardens""

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "built to represent the legendary "Paradise of the West", where the Amida Buddha rules"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "the best surviving example of a Paradise Garden is "Byodo-in" in Uji, near Kyoto"

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "in the lake in front of the temple is a small island of white stones, representing "Mount Horai""

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "connected to the temple by a bridge, which symbolizes the way to Paradise !!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "it is designed for mediation and contemplation !!! - not as a pleasure garden"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "it was a lesson in Daoist and Buddhist philosophy, created with landscape and architecture - and a prototype for future gardens"

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


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Kamakura and Muromachi Periods
(1185-1573):

 

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  • "monks came to Japan, and brought with them a new form of Buddhism, called simply "Zen" - or "meditation""

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "the first Zen garden in Japan was built in 1251 in "Kamakura". Japan enjoyed a renaissance in religion, in the arts, and particularly in gardens"

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "many famous temple gardens were built early in this period, including "Kinkaku-ji", the “Golden Pavilion”, built in 1398"

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "and "Ginkaku-ji", the "Silver Pavilion", built in 1482"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "in some ways they followed Zen principles of spontaneity, extreme simplicity, and moderation"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "the most notable garden style invented in this period was the Zen garden of a monastery - to incite mediation !!!!!"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "several of the famous Zen gardens of Kyoto were the work of one man: "Muso Soseki" (1275-1351) - he was a monk"

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "and responsible for the building of the Zen gardens of "Nanzen-ji", "Saiho-ji" ( the Moss Garden ), and "Tenryu-ji""

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


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the Momoyama Period
(1568–1600):

 

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  • "the characteristic garden of the period featured one or more ponds or lakes next to the main residence, or "shoin""

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "these gardens were meant to be seen from above"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "the lakes were surrounded by beaches of small stones and decorated with arrangements of boulders, with natural stone bridges, and stepping stones"

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "the most famous garden of this kind, built in 1592, is situated near "Tokushima" on the island of Shikoku. Its notable features include a bridge 10.5 meters long made of two natural stones"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "another notable garden of the period still existing is "Sanbo-in", rebuilt by Toyotomi Hideyoshi"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "to celebrate the festival of the cherry blossom - and to recreate the splendor of the ancient garden !!"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "in the east of the garden, on a peninsula, is an arrangement of stones designed to represent the mythical "Mount Horai""

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "a wooden bridge leads to an island representing a crane, and a stone bridge connects this island to another representing a tortoise"

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "which is connected by an earth-covered bridge back to the peninsula. The garden also includes a waterfall at the foot of a wooded hill"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "the "Momoyama" Period also saw the development of the "chanoyu" ( tea ceremony ), the "chashitsu" ( teahouse ), and the "roji" ( tea garden )"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "the first great tea master, "Sen no Rikyu" (1522-1591), defined in the most minute detail the appearance and rules of the tea house and tea garden, following the principle of "wabi""

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "sober refinement and calm !!!!!"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "it was a small and very plain wooden structure, often with a thatched roof - with just enough room inside for two "tatami" mats"

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "a path led to the entrance of the tea house. Along the path was a small, square door called "nijiri-guchi", or "crawling-in entrance""

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "which requires bending low to pass through !!!!!"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Edo Period
(1615-1867):

 

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  • "while the political center of Japan was now "Tokyo", "Kyoto" remained the cultural capital, the center for religion and art"

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "the "Edo" period saw the widespread use of a new kind of Japanese architecture, called "Sukiya-zukuri", which means literally "building according to chosen taste""

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "the "Sukiya" style was used in the most famous garden of the period, the "Katsura Imperial Villa" in Kyoto"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "the buildings were built in a very simple, undecorated style - a prototype for future Japanese architecture"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "they opened up onto the garden !!!! - so that the garden were an entirely part of the building !!!!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "whether the visitor was inside or outside of the building"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "he always had a feeling - he was in the center of the Nature !!!!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "the garden buildings were arranged so that were always seen from a diagonal, rather than straight on"

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "this arrangement had the poetic name "ganko", which meant literally "a formation of wild geese in flight""

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "most of the gardens of the "Edo" Period were promenade gardens - and they were usually much larger than earlier gardens"

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "the promenade gardens of the period made extensive use of borrowing of scenery ("shakkei")"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "vistas of distant mountains are integrated in the design of the garden - or, even better, building the garden on the side of a mountain"

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "and using the different elevations to attain views over landscapes outside the garden"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • ""Edo" promenade gardens were often composed of a series of "meisho", or "famous views""

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "unlike Zen gardens, they were designed to portray the Nature as it appeared !!!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "not the internal rules of the Nature !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!"

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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JAPANESE GARDEN
- Wikipedia EN: LINK ¤ JAPANESE GARDEN


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garden - 022GA
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