European Union





one Trillion Euro for the European Green Deal - EU Observer: LINK ¤ EU OBSERVER

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  • "the European Commission unveils its - one trillion Euro investment plan !!!!!!!!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "to put Europe on track - to reach the 2050 emissions-neutrality goal !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "while also helping regions - to move away from fossil fuels !!!!!!!!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "to mobilise that investment, of public and private money - over the next 10 years to finance !!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

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  • "the "European Green Deal" - and meet the climate objectives !!!!!!!!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

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  • "in December last year, all member states agreed to green their economies over the next 30 years - to tackle the climate !!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "the long-awaited Just Transition Mechanism, JTM - is part of the Sustainable Europe Investment Plan !!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

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  • "which covers the social dimension of the Green Deal - and which is supporting regions !!!!!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "the JTM focuses on three dimensions: economic diversification - re-skilling - and environmental transition !!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

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  • "the JTM leans on three pillars: a Just Transition Fund - the Invest EU program - and loans from the European Investment Bank, EIB !!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "the Just Transition Fund supports projects - that are low-carbon - and climate-resilient !!!!!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

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  • "including re-skilling programmes, jobs in new economic sectors - and energy-efficient housing !!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

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  • "this fund, which aims to then generate between30bn to50bn over the next seven years - explicitly excludes any support for fossil fuels !!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "the second major contribution to the JTM comes from Invest EU - the programme known as the Juncker Plan !!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

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  • "which mobilises up to45bn - in investments !!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "finally, the EIB works closely with the EU Commission to mobilise between25bn to30bn - additional investment for the JTM !!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

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  • "by 2025, at least half of EIB financing will be dedicated - to climate action projects !!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

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  • "additionally, transition fund money will not finance - the construction of nuclear plants !!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "member states are required to draw up "just transition plans" - which need to be consistent with the EU's climate goals !!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

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  • "and the National Energy and Climate Plans, NECPs - to receive funding to support regions !!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

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  • "supporting a cost-effective transition - to climate neutrality by 2050 !!!!!!!!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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the European Green Deal - the Guardian: LINK ¤ the GUARDIAN

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  • "nearly every major aspect of the European economy is to be re-evaluated - in light of the imperatives of the climate !!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "the comprehensive nature of the "European Green Deal" - which encompasses the air we breathe, to how food is grown !!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

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  • "from how we travel - to the buildings we inhabit !!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

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  • "represents the biggest overhaul of policy - since the foundation of the modern EU !!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "this new strategy shows how to transform our way of living and working - of producing and consuming !!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

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  • "so that the Europeans live - healthier lives !!!!!!!!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

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  • "Europe moves first - and moves fast !!!!!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "Europe must lead on climate - and the "European Green Deal" shows how !!!!!!!!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

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  • "to lead the world on climate action - with a target of halving emissions by 2030 !!!!!!!!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

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  • "and net-zero carbon - by 2050 !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "under the "European Green Deal" - regulators sets specific standards on the manufacturing of goods - to create a circular economy !!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

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  • "and phase out unnecessary plastic, and other waste - before it is created !!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "there are tougher air quality requirements - and energy targets are raised !!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

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  • "to generate more energy from renewable sources - up to 100% by 2050 !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

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  • "more freight is transported by rail and water - and greenhouse gas emissions from air travel are reduced !!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "€ 100bn to help finance the transition - to a low-carbon economy !!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

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  • "along with the potential for a carbon border tax - to be levied on imports to the EU from countries !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "( without sufficiently stringent carbon targets - of their own !!!!!!!!!!!! )"

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • Ester Asin, from the WWF:  "the package is comprehensive - and identifying the right areas for action !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!""

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "from biodiversity and nature restoration - to climate !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Catalunya and Scotland may want to become European Regions - Missed Link:

 

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  • the Europeans - and the EU - should consider the real possibility !!!

 

 

 

 

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  • that Catalunya and Scotland - want to become official European Regions !!!!!!

 

 

 

 

 

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  • in Catalunya more than 50% people say - that they want to become a European Region !!!!

 

 

 

 

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  • and in Scotland there are tendencies - in a similar direction !!!!

 

 

 

 

 

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  • the Europeans - and the EU - should be prepared for it !!!

 

 

 

 

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  • and should have a constructive catalog - for what it means, to be a European Region !!!!!!

 

 

 

 

 

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  • strong minimum standards - in democracy - and for the cultural heritage !!!!!!

 

 

 

 

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  • a strong social policy - a strong environmental policy - and a strong protection of the nature !!!!!!

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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the State of Europe Address by Jean-Claude Juncker - the Guardian: LINK ¤ the GUARDIAN

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  • "Jean-Claude Juncker’s state of Europe address - to the European Parliament !!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "is to - unite Europe !!!!!!!!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "the European Union must go forward - says the President of the European Commission Juncker !!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "reboot the bloc - and make it more relevant to its citizens !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "a better Europe - that is a real driving force !!!!!!!!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "the EU must not only - preserve our European way of life !!!!!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "but also empower those - who are living it !!!!!!!!!!!!"

 

 

 


 

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  • "improved cooperation and solidarity between the member states - and with Europe’s institutions are important !!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "the people of Europe - want results !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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the UK leaves the European Union - the Guardian: LINK ¤ the GUARDIAN

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  • "the senior EU leaders and the President of the European Commission - Jean-Claude Juncker confirm !!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "that the UK has to leave the EU - as soon as possible !!!!!!!!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "and expect the UK to act - as soon as possible !!!!!!!!!!!!"

 

 

 


 

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  • "( when it came to reforms - the UK always said "no"  !!!!!! )"

 

 

 

 

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  • "(( the UK only wanted - a common market ! ))"

 


 



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  • the Italian Prime Minister, Matteo Renzi:  "we must change - the EU !!!!!!!!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "to make it more human - and more just !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "Europe is our home - and it’s our future !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!"

 

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

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EU Commission sets out Plans to curb corporate Tax Avoidance - Financial Times: LINK ¤ FINANCIAL TIMES

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  • "the EU Commission launches an assault - on tax avoidance by international companies !!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

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  • "closing regulatory loopholes - revealed by the LuxLeaks scandal !!!!!!"

 

 

 


 

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  • "the European Commission plans curb businesses’ use - of complex intra-group debt arrangements !!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

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  • "and contain a provision for all countries to apply - an "exit tax" on intellectual property assets - such as patents !!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

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  • "and further requirements for companies to publicly disclose - the taxes they paid to individual countries !!!!!!"

 

 

 


 

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  • "Pierre Moscovici, the EU Commissioner for economic and financial affairs - says:  !!!!!!"

 

 

 


 

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  • "the EC is determined to crack down on companies - which try to play the system !!!!!!!!!!!!"

 

 

 


 

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  • "a fairer, and more stable tax environment - is better for all !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!"

 

 

 

 




 

 

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EU Parliament gets behind € 315bn Investment Plan - the Guardian: LINK ¤ the GUARDIAN

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  • "Jean-Claude Juncker, the head of the EU executive - wins overwhelming support in the Parliament in Strasbourg for his big initiative !!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

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  • "the European investment fund - seeded with EU budget money to deliver315bn !!!!!!!!!!!!"

 

 

 


 

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  • "the plan grants to a loans-based approach - providing guarantees to private investors !!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

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  • "to fund energy - IT - broadband - transport - and research projects !!!!!!!!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "a vehicle called the European Fund for Strategic Investment is seeded with21bn from the EU budget - including € 5bn from the EIB  !"

 

 

 

 

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  • "which is to translate that into more than60 billion in loans and guarantees - that, in turn, generates 315bn in investment !!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "any contributions by member states are exempted - from calculations of public spending and budget deficits  !"

 

 

 

 

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  • "the stated aim of the new scheme - is sustainability, and create jobs !!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Jean-Claude Juncker confirmed as European Commission President - the Guardian: LINK ¤ the GUARDIAN

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  • "Jean-Claude Juncker is confirmed as next president - of the European Commission !!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

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  • "by the MEPs - in the new European Parliament !!!!!!"

 

 


 

 

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  • "the confirmation marks the first time - the EU Parliament !!!!!!!!!!!!"

 

 


 

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  • "is effectively driving - the nomination !!!!!!!!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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EU moves to crack down on Banks dodging Bonus Cap - the Guardian: LINK ¤ the GUARDIAN

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  • "banks seeking to circumvent the EU's cap on bonuses - for top staff !!!"

 

 

 

 

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  • "can face further action - from the European regulators !!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • Michel Barnier, vice-president of the European Commission - with responsibility for financial services !!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

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  • "warns - there can be a coordinated policy response !!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

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  • "to banks that dodged - the EU bonus cap !!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "the EU limits bankers' bonuses - as part of a broader package of reforms !!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

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  • "aimed at encouraging banks - to behave more responsibly !!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

 



 

 

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European Parliament Election - the Guardian: LINK ¤ the GUARDIAN

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  • "the European Parliament now has - a strong say !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!"

 


 

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  • "in almost all - EU legislation !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!"

 

 


 

 

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  • "the parliamentary leaders insist that the job - of the new head of the EU executive !!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

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  • "after this elections - will have to go to either Jean-Claude Juncker !!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

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  • "or Martin Schulz - the social democratic parliamentary speaker !!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "we are very clear - says Hannes Swoboda, head of the social democrats in the outgoing Parliament !!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

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  • "we will not vote for - any other candidate !!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

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  • "we will not accept any other candidates except those standing - Juncker and Schulz !!!!!!"

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

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- Capital: Brussels -EC = European Commission ]


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US Investment - US cable - 2009: LINK ¤ 09BRUSSELS171

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  • "the European Union had a hospitable climate - for US investment !"

 

 

 


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  • "EU Treaty article 43 - required EU member states !"

 

 

 

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  • "to provide national treatment to investors - from other member states !"

 

 

 

 

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  • "the treaty created "four freedoms" - capital - labor - goods - and persons !"

 

 

 

 

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  • "the free movement of capital - in particular benefited all investors !"

 

 

 

 

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  • "whether they originated from an EU member state - or not !"

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

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US Subprime Crisis - US cable - 2008:
LINK ¤ 08BRUSSELS64

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  • Berrigan of ECFIN, EU economic and financial affairs:  "the US financial crisis damages the model of securitization !"

 

 

 

 

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  • "this model had produced - new complex financial products !"

 

 

 

 

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  • "many of these assets were held - "off-balance-sheet" by financial players !"

 

 

 

 

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  • "in the USA, defaults on securitized subprime loans - are a prime factor in the current crisis !"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Financial Reform - US cable - 2009: LINK ¤ 09BRUSSELS208

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  • "the EU Report on financial services supervision - emphasizes !!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

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  • "the importance of consistency between EU - and global rules !!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

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  • "this requires an international process - to write global rules !!!!!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

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  • "and put in place - the right global architecture !!!!!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

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  • "to tackle the levels of activity - that international regulators need to fulfill !!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Financial Regulation
- US cable - 2009:
LINK ¤ 09BRUSSELS290

- causes of the financial crisis -

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  • "the EU report notes that liquidity - amplified by financial innovation !!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

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  • "were the major factors behind - the current US financial crisis !!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

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  • "in the US, very low interest rates - unregulated mortgage lending !"

 

 

 

 

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  • "and insufficient oversight - led to a widespread housing bubble !!"

 

 


 

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  • "investors sought higher returns - through increasing leverage !!!"

 

 

 

 

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  • "and investment in - more risky assets !!!"

 

 

 

 

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  • "this was exacerbated - by a lack of transparency !!!!!!"

 

 

 



 

 

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- policy and regulatory repair -

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  • "increase minimum capital requirements !!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

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  • "reduce pro-cyclicality !!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

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  • "introduce stricter rules - for off-balance sheet items !!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

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  • "tighten norms - on liquidity management !!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

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  • "and strengthen the rules - for bank's internal control and risk management !!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

 

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credit rating agencies:




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  • "the underlying economic model needs to be reviewed - in order to reduce conflicts of interest !!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

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  • "particularly from the - issuer pays model !!!!!!"

 

 


 

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  • "a "European Securities Authority" should be put in charge - of registering and supervising CRAs in the EU !!!"

 

 

 

 

 

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hedge funds:




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  • "regulation should be extended to all entities - of a potentially systemic nature !!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

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  • "registration and information requirements should be imposed internationally - on hedge funds !!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

 

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over the counter derivatives:




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  • "derivatives should be simplified and standardized - to reduce risk !!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

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  • "at least one "central clearing counterparty", CCP - should be located in the EU !!!"

 

 

 

 

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  • "supervised by a "European securities authority" - and the ECB !!!"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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- EU supervisory repair
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  • "the former structure of EU supervision placed too little emphasis - on macro-prudential supervision !!!"

 

 

 

 

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  • "a European systemic risk council, ESRC - should be created and given responsibility for macro-prudential supervision  !!!"

 

 

 

 

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  • "to improve micro-prudential supervision - a European system of financial supervision, ESFS, should be created !!!"

 

 

 

 

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  • "the committees CEBS, CEIOPS, and CESR - should be transformed into new authorities:  !"

 

 

 

 

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  • "a European banking authority - a European insurance authority - and a European securities authority !!!"

 

 

 

 

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  • "existing national supervisors - should carry out day-to-day supervision !!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

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  • "the committees should coordinate application - of supervisory standards !!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

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  • "colleges of supervisors - should be set up for all major cross-border institutions !!!!!!"

 

 

 


 

 

 

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- global repair
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  • "the EU has an interest in the worldwide consistency - of regulatory standards !!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

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  • "the financial stability forum, FSF - is the body best placed to coordinate the work !!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

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  • "of international standard setters - in achieving international regulatory consistency !!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

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  • "the FSF needs more resources - and a stronger governance structure !!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

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  • "it should be made more accountable by reporting - and by enlarging its membership !!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

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  • "the IMF-C, IMF committee - should be transformed into a decision-making council !!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

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  • "the IMF should be put in charge of developing and operating - a financial stability early warning system !!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

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  • "accompanied by an international risk map - and credit register !!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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US Financial Regulation - US cable - 2009: LINK ¤ 09FRANKFURT3283

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  • "representatives of the European and international financial community - agree !"

 

 

 

 

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  • "the key lessons from the crisis include - banks need better internal risk management !!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

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  • "and stricter and more effective regulation - at all levels !!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

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  • "and the participants felt frustrated - with the insufficient US regulatory reforms !!!!"

 

 

 


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  • "numerous voices express frustration - with current regulatory efforts of the USA !!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

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  • "Jacques de Larosiere - who chairs the high-level expert group on EU financial supervision !!!!"

 

 

 

 

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  • "calls the US effort - insufficient !!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

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  • "since they keep an institutional patchwork - that is completely ineffective !!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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EU-Parlament stimmt für Anerkennung des Staats Palästina - der Standard: LINK ¤ der STANDARD

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  • "das EU-Parlament nimmt mit 498 gegen 88 Stimmen - einen Entschließungsantrag !!!!"

 

 

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  • "für die Anerkennung - des Palästinenserstaates an !!!!!!"

 

 

 

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  • "der von fünf Parteien gefundene Kompromiss - betont die Unterstützung für die Zwei-Staaten-Lösung !!!!"

 

 

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  • "und fordert die Weiterführung - der Friedensgespräche !!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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EUROPEAN UNION - Wikipedia EN: LINK ¤ EUROPEAN UNION

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  • "the European Union, EU, is a political and economic union of 27 member states - in Europe !"

 

 

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  • "institutions include the European Parliament - the Court of Justice of the EU - and the European Central Bank, ECB  !"

 


 

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European Union - Map: LINK ¤ WIKIMEDIA
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