European Union





Catalunya and Scotland may want to become official European Regions  ! - Missed Link:

 

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  • we - and the EU - should consider the real, and great possibility,

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • that Catalunya and Scotland want to become official European Regions !!!!!

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • in Catalunya there are more and more people  ( 50%, or more ), who say that they want to become an European Region  !!

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • and in Scotland there are strong tendencies, in a similar direction  !

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • we - and the EU - should be prepared for it  !

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • and should have a constructive catalog !! - for what it means, to be an official European Region !!!!!

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • strong minimum standards  ! - in decisionmaking/democracy !!! ( subsidiarity ) - for a very rich cultural heritage !!!

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • a strong social policy !!! - a strong environmental policy !!! - and very strong protection of the Nature !!!!!

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Juncker’s Speech was all about concrete Ideas to unite Europe - the Guardian: LINK ¤ the GUARDIAN

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  • "Jean-Claude Juncker’s state of the EU address to the European Parliament unveiled concrete proposals"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "to unite Europe !!!!"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "the European Union is facing an existential crisis, the President of the European Commission said"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "two days before a brainstorming session of EU heads of state - minus Theresa May - in Bratislava, he sought above all to establish common ground among members, on a roadmap"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "to reboot the bloc and make it more relevant to its citizens !!"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "a better Europe that was a real driving force across the continent"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "the EU should not only preserve our European way of life !"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "but also empower those who are living it !!!"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "Juncker also proposed doubling both the size and the duration of his signature European investment programme"

 

 

 

 

 

 


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  • "to630bn by 2022, to boost the continent’s economy and create more jobs !"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "improved cooperation and solidarity between the member states and with Europe’s institutions will be essential"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "the people of Europe don’t want this petty envy between the various institutions - they want results !!"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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we want Britain out as soon as possible - the Guardian: LINK ¤ the GUARDIAN

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  • "senior EU leaders and the President of the European Commission, Jean-Claude Juncker have confirmed:"

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "we expect Britain to act as soon as possible"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "there will be no renegotiation"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • Martin Schulz, the President of the European Parliament: "EU lawyers are studying article 50 of the Lisbon treaty"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "we can not accept that a whole continent is taken hostage because of an internal fight in the Tory party"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "David Cameron said in his resignation speech it would be up to his successor to trigger article 50"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "once that would be done, the clock starts running on two years of negotiations"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • the French President, François Hollande: "the EU now has to make changes"

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "the vote puts Europe to the test: to move forward, Europe cannot act as before"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • the new Austrian Chancellor, Christian Kern: "Brussels needs a clear reform process to boost economies, stem unemployment and improve working conditions"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • the Italian Prime Minister, Matteo Renzi: "we must change the EU to make it more human and more just"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "but Europe is our home, it’s our future"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "when it came to reforms, the Britains always said "no""

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "they only wanted a common market"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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EU Commission sets out Plans to curb corporate Tax Avoidance - Financial Times: LINK ¤ FINANCIAL TIMES

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  • "Brussels launched an assault on tax avoidance by multinational companies"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "pledging to close regulatory loopholes revealed by the LuxLeaks scandal"

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "and to give EU countries more powers to claw back profits that businesses seek to shift abroad"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "the European Commission plans would curb businesses’ use of complex intra-group debt arrangements to reduce their overall tax burden"

 

 

 

 

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  • "the plans also contain a provision for all countries to apply an "exit tax" on intellectual property assets, such as patents, that are moved to other jurisdictions"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "an effort to limit the extent to which a multinational company could cut its tax bill by financing some parts of its business through debt owed to overseas subsidiaries"

 

 

 

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  • "they would limit the amount of interest a company can claim as tax-deductible each year, setting an upper limit measured as a percentage of operating profits"

 

 

 

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  • "and they would make it easier for countries to tax companies on profits parked in a subsidiary based elsewhere"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "the proposals are one of the main steps taken so far by the EU to tackle the problem of aggressive corporate tax avoidance"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "which the commission estimates costs EU governments as much as70bn a year"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "Pierre Moscovici, the EU Commissioner for economic and financial affairs, said"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "that tax avoidance is a "global problem""

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "but the EC is determined to crack down on companies who play the system and cut their tax bills"

 

 

 

 

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  • ""it is too easy for companies to escape taxation by shifting assets to tax havens", vowing to "name and shame" companies who don’t play fair"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "a fairer, simpler and more stable tax environment is better for all businesses in the EU"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "but the initiative was criticised as insufficient by campaigners and members of the European Parliament"

 

 

 

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  • "saying the plans would not tackle many of the practices exposed by LuxLeaks - the name given to revelations in 2014"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "that up to 340 multinational companies, ranging from Ikea to Pepsi, funnelled profits through Luxembourg to lower their tax bills"

 

 

 

 

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  • "in some instances to as little as 1 per cent"

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "the system needs real reform, not piecemeal solutions"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "the commission said the plans were part of a sustained campaign to address tax avoidance that would also include pushing ahead with proposals for a harmonised European system for calculating taxable profits"

 

 

 

 

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  • "and further requirements for companies to publicly disclose the taxes they paid to individual countries"

 

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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France and Germany agree to closer Eurozone Ties
- the Guardian
: LINK ¤ the GUARDIAN

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  • "France and Germany have forged a pact to integrate the eurozone"

 

 

 

 

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  • "the French President, François Hollande, and the German Chancellor, Angela Merkel, have sealed an agreement"

 

 

 

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  • "aimed at fashioning a tighter political union among the single-currency countries"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "the Franco-German proposals are to be put to the EU summit in Brussels"

 

 

 

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  • "the Franco-German accord calls for eurozone reforms in four areas in the years ahead"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "of economic, fiscal and social convergence"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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EU Parliament gets behind € 315bn Investment Plan - the Guardian: LINK ¤ the GUARDIAN

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  • "Jean-Claude Juncker, the head of the EU executive, won overwhelming support in the Parliament in Strasbourg for his first big initiative"

 

 

 

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  • "a European investment fund seeded with EU budget money to deliver315bn"

 

 

 

 

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  • "to pour into strategic infrastructure projects over three years"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "Martin Schulz, the President of the Parliament, described it as a potential "turning point" following years of financial and currency woe and austerity"

 

 

 

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  • "the plan grants to a loans-based approach aimed at providing guarantees to private investors"

 

 

 

 

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  • "to fund energy, IT, broadband, transport and research projects"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "a vehicle called the European Fund for Strategic Investment will be seeded with € 21bn from the EU budget, including € 5bn from the EIB"

 

 

 

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  • "which is to translate that into more than60 billion in loans and guarantees. That, in turn, should generate € 315bn in investment"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "any contributions by member states would be exempted from calculations of public spending and budget deficits"

 

 

 

 

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  • "the stated aim of the new scheme is to boost growth and create jobs"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Jean-Claude Juncker confirmed as European Commission President - the Guardian: LINK ¤ the GUARDIAN

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  • "Juncker has been confirmed as next president of the European commission by the MEPs in the new European parliament"

 

 

 

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  • "pledging to promote economic growth and kick Europe out of an unemployment crisis"

 

 

 

 

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  • "he vowed to find € 300bn for investment in infrastructure and jobs"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "the confirmation marked two firsts in the EU: the first time the national leader of a big member state (Britain), had been ignored in the choice of commission president"

 

 

 

 

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  • "and the first time the Parliament, following elections in May"

 

 

 

 

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  • "effectively dictated the nomination to Berlin, Paris, London and other EU capitals"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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EU moves to crack down on Banks dodging Bonus Cap - the Guardian: LINK ¤ the GUARDIAN

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  • "banks seeking to circumvent the EU's cap on bonuses for top staff"

 

 

 

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  • "could face further action from European regulators, a senior official has warned"

 

 

 

 

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  • “Michel Barnier, vice-president of the European commission, with responsibility for financial services"

 

 

 

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  • "said there could be "a coordinated policy response""

 

 

 

 

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  • "to banks that dodge the EU bonus cap by paying allowances to their top staff"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "the EU limited bankers' bonuses to one year's salary, or twice that amount with shareholders' approval"

 

 

 

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  • "as part of a broader package of reforms aimed at encouraging banks to behave more responsibly"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Juncker: the Consensus-Seeker - the Guardian: LINK ¤ the GUARDIAN

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  • "if anyone had suggested six months ago that a grey 59-year-old Luxembourger with a talent for middle courses and compromise"

 

 

 

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  • "would emerge as the most controversial figure in European politics, few would have believed them"

 

 

 

 

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  • "yet over the course of the last week, Jean-Claude Juncker has become just that"

 

 

 

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  • "with some claiming that his appointment as the next president of the European commission could accelerate Britain's exit from the EU"

 

 

 

 

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  • "in Juncker's own words, what qualifies him for the top job in Brussels is his talent for "building bridges""

 

 

 

 

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  • "he claims to have a special skill for taking into account the concerns of every member at the table"

 

 

 

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  • "I am someone who is fanatical about seeking a consensus, as long as a compromise constitutes a solution"

 

 

 

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  • "without compromises there is no democracy"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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European Parliament Election - the Guardian: LINK ¤ the GUARDIAN

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  • "once a bypassed talking shop with no real power, the Strasbourg Parliament"

 

 

 

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  • "has gained greatly expanded powers of "co-decision""

 

 

 

 

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  • "with the commission and the national governments represented in the European council"

 

 

 

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  • "it now has a strong say in almost all EU legislation"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "the one bit of democratically elected Brussels finally gets more influence"

 

 

 

 

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  • "the new Parliament can expect an immediate power struggle with Europe's national leaders"

 

 

 

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  • "over the first signature decision of its five-year term: who will be the head of the EU executive, the European commission"

 

 

 

 

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  • "the post has always been in the gift of the heads of government"

 

 

 

 

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  • "but parliamentary leaders insist that the job will have to go to either Jean-Claude Juncker, the former prime minister of Luxembourg"

 

 

 

 

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  • "or Martin Schulz, the German parliamentary speaker who leads Europe's social democrats in the campaign"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "the power struggle is less about party politics than about European institutions"

 

 

 

 

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  • ""we are very clear," said Hannes Swoboda, head of the social democrats in the outgoing Parliament"

 

 

 

 

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  • "we will not vote for any other candidate"

 

 

 

 

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  • "we will not accept any other candidates except those standing - Juncker and Schulz"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "national leaders still have the right to nominate a commission president"

 

 

 

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  • "but for the first time, under the Lisbon treaty, they have to take account of the election outcome and consult the parliament on their choice"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "the nominee has to be supported by an absolute majority in the Parliament"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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- Capital: Brussels -EC = European Commission ]


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EU President Barroso - US cable - 2006: LINK ¤ 06USEUBRUSSELS4207

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  • "as Barroso's aides note, even the constitutional question interests him only from a pragmatic perspective"

 

 

 

 

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  • "until it is settled he understands that the Union cannot move on"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "move on to what ?"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "Barroso's team freely admits that, as an outsider from a small member state, he lacks a core power base in the EU"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "policy decisions result from closed-door horse-trading"

 

 

 

 

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  • "in which the council and the member states are the key players"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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US Investment - US cable - 2009: LINK ¤ 09BRUSSELS171

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  • "the European Union has one of the most hospitable climates for US investment"

 

 

 

 

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  • "with the book value of US investment in the 27 EU member states exceeding US$ 1 trillion"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "EU Treaty article 43 requires EU member states to provide national treatment to investors from other Member States"

 

 

 

 

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  • "the Treaty creates "four freedoms" (capital, labor, goods and persons) within the EU"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "the free movement of capital in particular benefits all investors"

 

 

 

 

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  • "whether they originate from an EU member state or not"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "for example German banks can conduct securities business in other member states"

 

 

 

 

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  • "even if local banks are not allowed"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Subprime Crisis - US cable - 2008:
LINK ¤ 08BRUSSELS64

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  • Berrigan of ECFIN (EU economic and financial affairs): "the crisis has damaged the "originate and distribute" model of securitization"

 

 

 

 

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  • "this model has produced new complex financial products"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "many of these assets are held "off-balance-sheet" by financial institutions"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "in the US, defaults on securitized subprime loans have been a prime factor in the current crisis"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Financial Reform - US cable - 2009: LINK ¤ 09BRUSSELS208

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  • "the "de Larosiere" Group's Report on EU financial services supervision"

 

 

 

 

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  • "has emphasized the importance of consistency between EU and global rules"

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "this requires an international process to write global rules"

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "and put in place the right global architecture"

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "to tackle the levels of activity that international institutions need to fulfill"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Financial Regulation
- US cable - 2009:
LINK ¤ 09BRUSSELS290


- causes of the financial crisis -

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  • "the report notes that ample liquidity and low interest rates"

 

 

 

 

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  • "amplified by financial innovation"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "were the major factors behind the current crisis"

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "in the US, very low interest rates, unregulated mortgage lending"

 

 

 

 

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  • "and insufficient oversight led to a widespread housing bubble"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "low US savings rates, accompanied by the accumulation of huge global imbalances"

 

 

 

 

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  • "led to a rapid expansion of credit in the US and depressed yields as surplus countries recycled their surpluses into US assets"

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "in this environment of high liquidity and low yields"

 

 

 

 

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  • "investors sought higher returns through increasing leverage"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "and investment in more risky assets"

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "this was exacerbated by a lack of transparency"

 

 

 

 

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  • "and increase in the size of the "shadow" banking system"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "the EU's regulatory response was weakened by an inadequate infrastructure for crisis management"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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- policy and regulatory repair -

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  • "increase minimum capital requirements"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "reduce pro-cyclicality"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "introduce stricter rules for off-balance sheet items"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "tighten norms on liquidity management"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "and strengthen the rules for bank's internal control and risk management"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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credit rating agencies:





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  • "the underlying economic model needs to be reviewed in order to reduce conflicts of interest"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "particularly from the "issuer pays" model"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "the use of ratings in financial regulations should be significantly reduced"

 

 

 

 

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  • "a "European Securities Authority" should be put in charge of registering and supervising CRAs in the EU"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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hedge funds:





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  • "regulation should be extended to all entities of a potentially systemic nature"

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "registration and information requirements should be imposed internationally on hedge funds"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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over the counter derivatives:





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  • "derivatives should be simplified and standardized to reduce risk"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "at least one "central clearing counterparty" (CCP) should be located in the EU"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "supervised by a "European securities authority" and the ECB"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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- EU supervisory repair
-


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  • "the current structure of EU supervision places too little emphasis on macro-prudential supervision"

 

 

 

 

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  • "a European systemic risk council (ESRC) should be created and given responsibility for macro-prudential supervision"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "to improve micro-prudential supervision, a European system of financial supervision (ESFS) should be created"

 

 

 

 

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  • "the committees CEBS, CEIOPS, and CESR could be transformed into new authorities:"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "a European banking authority, a European insurance authority, and a European securities authority"

 

 

 

 

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  • "existing national supervisors should carry out day-to-day supervision"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "the committees should coordinate application of supervisory standards"

 

 

 

 

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  • "guarantee cooperation between supervisors, that the interests of host supervisors are properly safeguarded"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "colleges of supervisors would be set up for all major cross-border institutions"

 

 

 

 

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  • "the ESFS should have a binding mediation mechanism to deal with cross border supervisory disagreements"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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- global repair
-


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  • "the EU has an interest in the worldwide consistency of regulatory standards"

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "the financial stability forum (FSF) is the body best placed to coordinate the work"

 

 

 

 

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  • "of international standard setters in achieving international regulatory consistency"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "to be able to play this role, the FSF needs more resources and a stronger governance structure"

 

 

 

 

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  • "it should be made more accountable by reporting and by enlarging its membership to include all systemically important countries"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "the IMF-C (IMF committee) should be transformed into a decision-making council"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "the IMF should be put in charge of developing and operating a financial stability early warning system"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "accompanied by an international risk map and credit register"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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US Financial Regulation - US cable - 2009: LINK ¤ 09FRANKFURT3283

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  • "representatives of the European and international financial community agreed in Frankfurt"

 

 

 

 

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  • "the key lessons from the crisis include: banks need better internal risk management"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "and stricter and more effective regulation at all levels"

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "participants felt frustrated with the insufficient US regulatory reforms"

 

 

 

 

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  • "and are skeptical about the US following through on regulatory promises made"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "numerous voices expressed frustration with current US regulatory efforts"

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "Jacques de Larosiere called US effort "insufficient""

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "since they keep an institutional patchwork that is completely ineffective"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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"Luxleaks"-Ausschuss kommt nicht in Fahrt - der Standard: LINK ¤ der STANDARD

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  • "im Europaparlament kommt die Arbeit des Sonderausschuss zur Aufklärung des Steuerdumpings für internationale Großunternehmen in Luxemburg und anderen EU-Staaten nur schleppend voran"

 

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  • "von elf Vertretern grenzüberschreitend tätiger Konzerne, die der Ausschuss nach Brüssel eingeladen hatte"

 

 

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  • "ist kein einziger erschienen"

 

 

 

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  • "die Unternehmen haben die Einladungen mit "fadenscheinigen Gründen" abgelehnt"

 

 

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  • "unter den Unternehmen waren der Getränkekonzern Coca-Cola, der Internet-Händler Amazon"

 

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  • "der schwedische Möbelkonzern Ikea, und die US-amerikanische Schnellimbisskette McDonald's"

 

 

 

 

 

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Berlin und Paris wollen Eurozone vertiefen - der Standard: LINK ¤ der STANDARD

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  • "Frankreichs Präsident François Hollande und Deutschlands Kanzlerin Angela Merkel haben Juncker zur Vorbereitung des nächsten EU-Gipfels Ende Juni ein gemeinsames Reformkonzept vorgelegt"

 

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  • "um die Zusammenarbeit in der Eurozone zu vertiefen"

 

 

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  • "eine Stärkung der gemeinsamen Wirtschaftspolitik, mehr Konvergenz bei Fiskal- und Sozialpolitik"

 

 

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  • "mehr Finanzstabilität, und den Ausbau der Bankenunion"

 

 

 

 

 

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EU-Parlament stimmt für Anerkennung des Staats Palästina - der Standard: LINK ¤ der STANDARD

_________________________________________

  • "das EU-Parlament hat mit 498 gegen 88 Stimmen einen Entschließungsantrag"

 

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  • "für die Anerkennung eines Palästinenserstaates angenommen"

 

 

 

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  • "der von fünf Parteien gefundene Kompromiss betont die Unterstützung für die Zwei-Staaten-Lösung"

 

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  • "und fordert die Weiterführung der Friedensgespräche"

 

 

 

 

 

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Van Rompuy und Ashton beenden Arbeit für die EU - der Standard: LINK ¤ der STANDARD

_________________________________________

  • EU-Außenbeauftragte Catherine Ashton: "es ist ziemlich hart"

 

_________________________________________

  • "man reist viel. Und man sitzt viel in Flugzeugen"

 

 

 

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  • "sie ist sich mit der früheren US-Außenministerin Hillary Clinton einig: es ist manchmal sehr anstrengend"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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EUROPEAN UNION - Wikipedia EN: LINK ¤ EUROPEAN UNION

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  • "the EU is a politico-economic union of 28 member states that are located primarily in Europe"

 

 

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  • "it operates through a system of supranational institutions and intergovernmental-negotiated decisions by the member states"

 

 

 

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  • "institutions include the European Parliament, the European Commission, the Council of the EU"

 

 

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  • "the European Council, the Court of Justice of the EU, and the European Central Bank"

 

 

 

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  • Population: 506.9 million

 

 

 

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European Union - Map: LINK ¤ WIKIMEDIA
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european union - 14044EU
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