Libya



Libya Report - BBC: LINK ¤ B B C

_________________________________________

  • "in 2011, Muammar Gaddafi's autocratic government was brought to an end"

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "after months of near-stalemate, the rebels stormed into Tripoli, and several weeks later Gaddafi was killed when his last holdout was overrun"

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "the main opposition group, the National Transitional Council (NTC)"

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "declared the country to be officially liberated"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "and pledged to turn Libya into a pluralist, democratic state"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "the transitional Government took charge and had the challenge of imposing order, disbanding the former rebel forces"

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "rebuilding the economy, creating functioning institutions and managing the pledged transition to democracy"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

______________________________________________________________________________

  • "elections for the General National Congress were held in 2012"

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "the country's first free national election in six decades"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "the Congress appointed Prime Minister, Ali Zeidan, who formed an interim Government"

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "tasked with preparing the ground for a new constitution and fresh parliamentary elections"

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "however, tensions between nationalists and islamists have stymied attempts to produce a stable government"

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "and in 2014 the country was riven by fighting between rival militias"

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "central government collapsed, and the United Nations has struggled to bring political factions together"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

______________________________________________________________________________



-
Capital: Tripoli
- [ GoL = Government of Libya ]


_________________________________________

Oil - US cable - 2008: LINK ¤ 08TRIPOLI474

_________________________________________

  • "soaring oil prices are allowing Libya to press for more stringent"

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "long-term contracts with foreign oil and gas producers"

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "Libya's unique position in terms of unproven reserves"

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "high quality oil and low recovery costs"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

______________________________________________________________________________

ExxonMobil - US cable - 2007: LINK ¤ 07TRIPOLI978

_________________________________________

  • "ExxonMobil has clinched a deal with Libya's National Oil Corporation"

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "to increase its acreage in the country by about fifty percent"

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "for a giant offshore bloc"

 

 

 


_________________________________________

  • "ExxonMobil's steps towards a major share in the Libyan market"

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "which it dominated before it left the country in 1986"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

______________________________________________________________________________

Oil - US cable - 2008: LINK ¤ 08TRIPOLI745

_________________________________________

  • "the German oil firm RWE made"

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "two more oil discoveries in the Sirte Basin"

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "the quality of its sweet crude is high"

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "and operating costs are low (US$ 1-5 a barrel)"

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "the Sirte Basin contains 80 percent of Libya's proven oil reserves"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

______________________________________________________________________________

US Companies - US cable - 2008: LINK ¤ 08TRIPOLI113

_________________________________________

  • "the Libyan National Oil Corporation (NOC) has informed American oil companies"

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "and has begun requiring US and other companies"

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "to conduct all operations in non-dollar denominations"

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "an US Foreign Ministry's senior official warned"

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "that this would set back US - Libyan relations"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

______________________________________________________________________________

US Investment - US cable - 2008: LINK ¤ 08TRIPOLI901

_________________________________________

  • "US interests on economic and trade issues:"

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "a free trade zone west of Tripoli in the Zwara-Abu-Kammash area"

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "headed by Saadi al-Qadhafi, son of Muammar al-Qadhafi"

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "and negotiations for a US-Libya trade and investment framework agreement (TIFA)"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

______________________________________________________________________________

US Companies - US cable - 2007: LINK ¤ 07TRIPOLI967

_________________________________________

  • "US companies had a number of return strategies"

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "buying back old concessions (Marathon and ConocoPhillips)"

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "winning bids for new blocs (Chevron and ExxonMobil)"

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "or a combination of both (Amerada Hess and Oxy)"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

______________________________________________________________________________

Claims Compensation Fund - US cable - 2009: LINK ¤ 09TRIPOLI139

_________________________________________

  • "the chairman of Libya's National Oil Company, Dr. Shukri Ghanem:"

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "foreign companies had not yet contributed to the international fund"

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "established under the US-Libya claims compensation agreement"

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "this had led the leadership to conclude that the companies were merely exploiting Libya's resources"

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • US ambassador: "US companies had reported feeling pressured"

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "putting pressure on US companies "crossed a red-line""

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

______________________________________________________________________________

Sarkozy's Trip to Libya - US cable - 2007: LINK ¤ 07PARIS3193

_________________________________________

  • "French companies were waiting for"

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "to move aggressively in seeking out opportunities in Libya"

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

comment US:

_________________________________________
  • "the French business community is aware that with the exception of Total"

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "it lags behind the United States and many EU partners"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

______________________________________________________________________________

colonial Compensation - US cable - 2008: LINK ¤ 08TRIPOLI688

_________________________________________

  • "the treaty of friendship and cooperation or "colonial compensation agreement""

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "signed in Benghazi by Libyan leader al-Qadhafi and Italian prime minister Berlusconi"

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "Berlusconi expressed regret for the pain that Italy's colonization had caused"

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "Italy will provide US$ 5 billion in funding for infrastructure projects over a 20-year period"

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "Italian companies will implement them"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

______________________________________________________________________________

Qadhafi incorporated - US cable - 2006: LINK ¤ 06TRIPOLI198

_________________________________________

  • "the politically-connected elite"

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "has direct access to lucrative business deals"

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "they have strong interests in the oil and gas sector, telecommunications"

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "infrastructure development, hotels, media distribution, and consumer goods distribution"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

______________________________________________________________________________

Inflation - US cable - 2009: LINK ¤ 09TRIPOLI1

_________________________________________

  • "prices have increased in Libya dramatically"

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "for consumer goods (especially food), housing and construction materials"

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "official figures: prices increased by 9.8 percent in the last year"

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "a market basket survey showed significantly greater increases in the price of foodstuffs"

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "particularly for previously subsidized goods such as sugar, rice, and flour"

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "which have increased by 85 percent in the past two years"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

______________________________________________________________________________

Eastern Libya - US cable - 2008: LINK ¤ 08TRIPOLI120

_________________________________________

  • "Libya's policy to keep the east poor"

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "to limit the potential political threat to Qadhafi's regime"

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "helped to fuel the perception among many young eastern Libyan men that they have nothing to lose"

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "eastern Libya suffers from a disproportionately high level of unemployment"

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "particularly for young men between the ages of 18 and 34"

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "half of the young men are unemployed or only intermittently employed"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "the Qadhafi regime believes that if it keeps the east poor enough"

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "it will be unable to mount any serious political opposition"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

______________________________________________________________________________

Gaddafi is subject of ICC Arrest Warrant - Washington Post: LINK ¤ WASHINGTON POST

_________________________________________

  • "judges from the International Criminal Court issued a warrant for the arrest"

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "of Libyan leader Moammar Gaddafi, his son and a top military intelligence chief"

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "calling for them to stand trial for crimes against humanity"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "the three-judge pretrial chamber ruled that ICC Prosecutor Moreno-Ocampo had established reasonable grounds"

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "to charge Gaddafi, his son Saif al-Islam Gaddafi and Abdullah al-Senussi"

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "the chief of military intelligence"

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "with the murder and persecution of hundreds of Libyan civilians since the government began suppressing public protests"

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "the prosecutor singled out Senussi for his role in leading a crackdown on opposition figures and demonstrators"

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "in the restive city of Benghazi, which has emerged as the capital of resistance to Gaddafi’s rule"

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "Senussi, acting on Gaddafi’s request, "expressly ordered the shooting at civilians" in Benghazi"

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "their arrest is necessary to ensure they appear before the Hague-based court"

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "and to prevent them from continuing further crimes against the Libyan population"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "the adoption of UN Security Council Resolution 1970, which approved the ICC prosecution in Libya"

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "marked the first time that the United States had voted in favor of a measure empowering the International Criminal Court"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

______________________________________________________________________________

Haager Gerichtshof: drei Haftbefehle gegen Gaddafi-Clan - der Standard: LINK ¤ der STANDARD

_________________________________________

  • "der Internationale Strafgerichtshof in Den Haag hat Haftbefehle gegen Muammar al-Gaddafi und zwei seiner engsten Vertrauten erlassen"

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "dem 69-jährigen libyschen Diktator sowie seinem Sohn Saif al-Islam und seinem Schwager und Geheimdienstchef Abdullah al-Senussi"

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "werden Verbrechen gegen die Menschlichkeit vorgeworfen"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

______________________________________________________________________________

escape from Tripoli
- PDF: LINK ¤ FORTRESS EUROPE

_________________________________________

  • "report on the conditions of migrants in transit in Libya"

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "in 2003, the Berlusconi government, acting ahead of the calling off of international sanctions against Libya"

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "sealed a secret agreement with Qaddafi to counter immigration"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

______________________________________________________________________________

stemming the Flow - Human Rights Watch Report: LINK ¤ H R W

_________________________________________

  • "how Libyan authorities have arbitrarily arrested undocumented foreigners"

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "mistreated them in detention, and forcibly returned them to countries where they could face persecution"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

______________________________________________________________________________

LIBYA - Wikipedia EN: LINK ¤ LIBYA

_________________________________________

  • "Libya, officially the State of Libya, is a country in the Maghreb region of North Africa"

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad and Niger to the south, and Algeria and Tunisia to the west"

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "the largest city and capital, Tripoli, is home to 1.7 million people"

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • Population: 6.2 million

 

 

 

_________________________________________

Ethnic Groups: LINK ¤ WIKIMEDIA

_________________________________________

Lībiyā
- Wikipedia AR: LINK ¤ Lībiyā
______________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________





libya  - 14101LY
designed by Free CSS Templates | powerd by pluck | hosted by akis