Bosnia Herzegovina




Bosnia-Herzegovina Report - BBC: LINK ¤ B B C

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  • "Bosnia-Herzegovina is recovering from a devastating three-year war which accompanied the break-up of Yugoslavia in the early 1990s"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "it is now an independent state, but under international administration"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "its three main ethnic groups are Bosniaks (Bosnian Muslims), Croats and Serbs"

 

 

 

 

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  • "the war left Bosnia's infrastructure and economy in tatters. Around two million people - about half the population - were displaced"

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "it is considered one of the most corruption-prone states in Europe, partly on account of the country's complex administrative framework"

 

 

 

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  • "semi-independent Serb and Muslim-Croat entities have their own governments, which are linked by weak central institutions"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "Bosnia has the highest unemployment rate in Europe"

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "the 1995 Dayton peace agreement set up two separate entities: a Bosniak-Croat Federation of Bosnia and Hercegovina"

 

 

 

 

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  • "and the Bosnian Serb Republic, or Republika Srpska, each with its own president, government, parliament, police and other bodies"

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "overarching these entities is a central Bosnian government and rotating presidency"

 

 

 

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  • "the Office of the High Representative is the state's ultimate authority"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "negotiations to amend the existing constitution, in order to strengthen state institutions and transform the country into a non-ethnic parliamentary democracy, have so far failed"

 

 

 

 

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  • "in all elections since 1995, the country's different communities have almost invariably voted along ethnic lines"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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the World's most complicated System of Government - the Guardian: LINK ¤ the GUARDIAN

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  • "Bosnia and Herzegovina comprises two entities: the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Republika Srpska"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "the main cities in the Federation are the capital Sarajevo, and the cities of Mostar, Tuzla, Bihac and Zenica"

 

 

 

 

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  • "while in the Republika Srpska entity the main cities are Banja Luka, Bijeljina, Prijedor and Trebinje"

 

 

 

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  • "formally part of both entities is the Brcko District, a multi-ethnic self-governing administrative unit"

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "there are different aspirations: Republika Srpska seeking greater autonomy"

 

 

 

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  • "Croat parties angling for a third entity, and several Bosniak parties hoping for a more centrally governed country"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "the Federation is predominantly Bosniak (Muslims) and Croat (Catholics), while the Republika Srpska is Serb (Orthodox)"

 

 

 

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  • "the largest minorities are the Roma and Jewish communities"

 

 

 

 

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  • "48% Bosniak, 37.1% Serb, 14.3% Croat and 0.6% "others""

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "a directly elected tripartite Presidency, which is in charge of foreign, diplomatic and military affairs, and the budget of state-level institutions"

 

 

 

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  • "the three presidency members are from the three constituent nations - one Bosniak, one Serb, one Croat"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "the Parliament of Bosnia and Herzegovina encompasses a House of Representatives and a House of Peoples"

 

 

 

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  • "the 42 members of the house of representatives are directly elected via a system of proportional representation. 28 members are elected in the Federation, 14 in the Republika Srpska"

 

 

 

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  • "the Chairman of the Council of Ministers of Bosnia and Herzegovina is nominated by the Presidency and approved by the House of Representatives - s/he is effectively the Prime Minister, and nominates ministers"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "at an entity level, both the Federation and the Republika Srpska have significant autonomy"

 

 

 

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  • "the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina has a directly-elected 98-member house of representatives. The Republika Srpska has an 83-member national assembly"

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "both entities have a Prime Minister and 16 ministries"

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "the Federation is furthermore divided into 10 cantons, each with its own administrative government and relative autonomy on local issues such as education and health care"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Pope arrives in Sarajevo for Reconciliation - the Guardian: LINK ¤ the GUARDIAN

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  • "Pope Francis has arrived in Sarajevo to encourage the dwindling number of Catholics"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "to stay and help forge a peaceful future"

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "Sarajevo, a largely Muslim city of 300,000, was once known as "Europe’s Jerusalem""

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "for its interfaith harmony among Christians, Muslims and Jews"

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "it became synonymous with religious enmity during the 1992-95 conflict that left 100,000 dead and displaced half of the population"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • Pope Francis: "Sarajevo is a city that has suffered so much in history"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "but now it is walking along the path to peace"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "his visit to Bosnia will offer support to its post-war process of reconciliation, and also encourage the tiny Catholic Croat community, which represents only about 15% of the population"

 

 

 

 

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  • "Muslim Bosniaks account for 40 per cent and Orthodox Christian Serbs 31 per cent"

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "I encourage you Catholics to stand beside your countrymen as witnesses to your faith and God’s love"

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "working for a society that walks toward peace, coexistence and collaboration"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "the Catholic population had shrunk across Bosnia in part because of the high unemployment rate, at currently 43%, with youth unemployment at 67%"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "Francis will also host a meeting with Muslim, Orthodox and Jewish leaders"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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-
Capital: Sarajevo
- [ BiH = Government of Bosnia and Herzegovina ]


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Corruption
- US cable - 2006:
LINK ¤ 06SARAJEVO1664

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  • "crime and corruption are serious problems and touch nearly every aspect of life"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "criminal clans aligned with politicians and political parties"

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "money laundering, tax evasion, corrupt privatization schemes, narcotics trafficking, trafficking in persons"

 

 

 

 

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  • "smuggling of cars, oil, lumber, and cigarettes all provide sources of illicit income"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "this is not surprising given the still limited economic opportunities and high unemployment rate"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "84% of Bosnians believe it is necessary of offer bribes to officials to get them to do their jobs"

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "the "Balkan Route" for drug smuggling into Europe is still very much in use"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Sandzak Clan:

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  • "the numbers started increasing significantly in the 1990s when a large number of "new businessmen" originally from Sandzak"

 

 

 

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  • "started investing in privatizations of profitable public companies, major construction projects (malls, hotels) and real estate"

 

 

 

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  • "much of the money came from illegal activities, such as narcotics trafficking and otherwise legal goods such as lumber and cigarettes"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "over the years the clan has been able to infiltrate administrative"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "political and law enforcement circles, and has close links to the dominant Muslim party in BiH, SDA"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Albanian Clan:

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  • "upon arrival, many started traditional small businesses such as grills, bakeries, candy/cake shops, and bars"

 

 

 

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  • "these businesses were often funded through loans provided by organized crime groups"

 

 

 

 

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  • "this enabled the clan to create networks for money laundering, smuggling, and distribution of various illegal goods"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Herzegovina Clan:

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  • "clans in largely Croatian western Herzegovina are involved in money laundering, fraud, tax evasion"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "and are linked to the dominant Croatian party HDZ"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "which has received millions of off-the-books contributions from Bosnian Croat diaspora in Croatia"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Srebrenica - US cable - 2007:
LINK ¤ 07SARAJEVO677

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  • "in 2004, then-High Representative Paddy Ashdown issued a decision requiring the Republika Srpska National Assembly (RSNA) to appoint a working group"

 

 

 

 

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  • "for the realization of the conclusions from the final report of the Srebrenica commission"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "which chronicled events in and around Srebrenica on 10-19 July 1995"

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "the RSNA created the Srebrenica commission's working group (SCWG)"

 

 

 

 

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  • "it was tasked to analyze the information contained in the confidential annexes of the final Srebrenica commission report"

 

 

 

 

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  • "and identify persons who committed war crimes but were still employed in entity and state-level institutions"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "2005 the multi-ethnic SCWG, supervised by the European Police Mission (EUPM), released a list"

 

 

 

 

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  • "to the BiH State Prosecutor's Office of over 800 people"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "BiH State Prosecutor Ibro Bulic, head of the State Court's Srebrenica war crimes prosecution unit:"

 

 

 

 

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  • "the list included a wide range of people who worked in military and paramilitary units"

 

 

 

 

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  • "and local civilian administration in the Srebrenica area at the time of the genocide"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Mandic - US cable - 2006: LINK ¤ 06SARAJEVO2725

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  • "the State Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina sentenced PIFWC Karadzic [person indicted for war crimes]"

 

 

 

 

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  • "financier Momcilo Mandic"

 

 

 

 

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  • "to prison for abuse of office and banking fraud"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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US Security - US cable - 2007:
LINK ¤ 07SARAJEVO1980

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  • "we are aware that drawing down our military presence in Bosnia is under consideration"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "it is our understanding that the current Nato commander, a US army major general, could be replaced by a European"

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "we believe that this plan would adversely affect US interests"

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "it would be viewed by the Bosnian government and public alike as"

 

 

 

 

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  • "the final exit of the US military mission that has been on the ground since 1995"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "the US general officers of Nato pushed the political actors here"

 

 

 

 

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  • "to make hard choices"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "we remain convinced that the US needs to maintain an important presence here"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "to ensure the huge investment we have made here is protected"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Goldstone Report - US cable - 2009:
LINK ¤ 09SARAJEVO1184

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  • "US embassy spoke with Milenko Misic, the Director of the Human Rights Division at the Bosnian Foreign Ministry"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "regarding request about the Goldstone Report on the conflict in Gaza"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "Bosnia will take the same position as the EU"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Papst Franziskus: nie mehr Krieg - der Standard: LINK ¤ der STANDARD

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  • "Papst Franziskus hat bei der Messe in der bosnischen Hauptstadt Sarajevo zum Frieden aufgefordert:"

 

 

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  • "nie mehr Krieg"

 

 

 

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  • "sagte der Papst in der Predigt während der Messe, zu der sich im Kosevo-Stadion an die 65.000 Gläubige versammelt haben"

 

 

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  • "Frieden zu schaffen, ist eine einzigartige Kunst"

 

 

 

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  • "echte Gerechtigkeit ist, anderen Menschen, Völkern all dies zu tun"

 

 

 

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  • "was man für sich selbst, für das eigene Volk wünscht"

 

 

 

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  • "der Pontifex rief ferner zur Vergebung, zu Gefühlen auf, welche Menschen dort, wo sie lebten, ermöglichten, zu "Künstlern des Friedensbauens" zu werden"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Papst Franziskus besucht Sarajevo - der Standard: LINK ¤ der STANDARD

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  • "Papst Franziskus traf Vertreter von Katholiken, Orthodoxen, Muslimen und der jüdischen Gemeinde"

 

 

 

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  • "bei seinem Besuch in Sarajevo rief das Oberhaupt der katholischen Kirche zur Versöhnung der Religionen auf"

 

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  • "Sarajevo war vor 20 Jahren Schauplatz eines Krieges zwischen hauptsächlich muslimischen Bosniaken, orthodoxen Serben und katholischen Kroaten"

 

 

 

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  • "Krieg bedeute zerstörte Häuser, zerbrochene Leben, sagte der Papst bei der Messe im Olympiastadium"

 

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  • "Ihr kennt es, weil Ihr es hier erlebt habt"

 

 

 

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  • "heute erhebt sich aus dieser Stadt der Schrei aller Männer und Frauen guten Willens:"

 

 

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  • "nie wieder Krieg !"

 

 

 

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  • "im Bosnien-Krieg kamen von 1992 bis 1995 rund 100.000 Menschen um. Weite Teile der Stadt wurden zerstört"

 

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  • "das Balkanland ist immer noch tief gespalten und hat große wirtschaftliche und soziale Probleme"

 

 

 

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  • "Sarajevo ist das "Jerusalem Europas""

 

 

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  • "sagte Franziskus, der als "Pilger des Friedens und des Dialogs" angereist war"

 

 

 

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  • "die Politiker müssen die ersten Diener ihrer Gemeinschaften sein"

 

 

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  • "und die Grundrechte des Menschen wahren"

 

 

 

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  • "die Muslime sind mit rund 50 Prozent die größte Bevölkerungsgruppe des Landes, gefolgt von Orthodoxen und Katholiken. Deren Zahl hat sich seit dem Krieg von 800.000 auf 400.000 ungefähr halbiert"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Papst Franziskus besucht Sarajevo - der Standard: LINK ¤ der STANDARD

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  • "Anfang Mai schrieben 20 bosnische Intellektuelle dem Papst einen Brief, in dem sie darauf hinwiesen, dass einige Politiker, die ihn in Sarajevo willkommen heißen werden, Kriegsverbrecher unterstützen"

 

 

 

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  • "HDZ-Chef Dragan Covic etwa empfing im Vorjahr Dario Kordic, der wegen der politischen Verantwortung für das Massaker von Ahmici, bei dem 1993 etwa 120 Muslime von kroatischen Einheiten ermordet wurden"

 

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  • "zu 25 Jahren Haft verurteilt worden war"

 

 

 

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  • "Kordic durfte nach der Entlassung sogar vom Altar herunter sprechen. "Da gab es kein einziges Wort der Reue""

 

 

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  • "weder Katharsis noch der so dringend benötigte Gesinnungswandel"

 

 

 

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  • "kritisieren die Intellektuellen, unter ihnen die Gewinnerin des Goldenen Bären, Jasmila Zbanic und der Schriftsteller Sasa Stanisic"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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BOSNIA HERZEGOVINA - Wikipedia EN: LINK ¤ BOSNIA HERZEGOVINA

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  • "Bosnia and Herzegovina, or Bosna i Hercegovina, is a country in southeastern Europe, on the Balkan peninsula - its capital is Sarajevo"

 

 

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  • "it is bordered by Croatia, Serbia, and Montenegro, and has a 20 kilometres long coastline on the Adriatic Sea"

 


 

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  • Population: 3.9 million

 

 

 

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BOSNA I HERCEGOVINA -
Wikipedia BS: LINK ¤ BOSNA
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Bosnia Herzegovina - Map:
LINK ¤ WIKIMEDIA
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bosnia herzegovina - 14068BH
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