Agriculture





ORGANIC FARMING - Wikipedia EN: LINK ¤ WIKIPEDIA

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  • "organic agriculture is an integrated farming system"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "that strives for sustainability, the enhancement of soil fertility, and biological diversity"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "whilst, with rare exceptions, prohibiting synthetic pesticides, antibiotics, synthetic fertilizers, genetically modified organisms, and growth hormones"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "organic farming originated early in the 20th century in reaction to rapidly changing farming practices"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "organic agriculture continues to be developed by various organic agriculture organizations"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "its fertilizers are of organic origin such as compost, manure, green manure, and bone meal"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "crop rotation, mixed cropping, companion planting, and the fostering of insect predators are encouraged"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "organic standards are designed to allow the use of naturally occurring substances"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "while prohibiting or strictly limiting synthetic fertilizers and pesticides"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "synthetic substances that are used include, for example, copper sulfate, elemental sulfur, and Ivermectin"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "genetically modified organisms, nanomaterials, plant growth regulators, and hormones are prohibited"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "the advantages of organic farming include sustainability, openness, self-sufficiency"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "autonomy/independence, health, food security, and food safety"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • History: "agriculture was practiced for thousands of years without the use of artificial chemicals”

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • ( note: small - family - farms have always been sustainable, "organic" ! )

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • ( therefore we should support, assist, and aid all small farmers in the world ! )

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "artificial fertilizers occurred during the mid-19th century, and chemical pesticides in the 1940s ( "pesticide era" )"

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "these techniques had serious longer term side effects such as soil compaction, erosion, and declines in overall soil fertility"

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "along with strong health concerns about toxic chemicals entering the food supply"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • ""biodynamic agriculture" was the first modern system of agriculture to focus exclusively on organic methods"

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "its development began in 1924 with a series of lectures on agriculture given by "Rudolf Steiner""

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "biodynamic agriculturists, who based their work on Steiner's "anthroposophy", used the term "organic" to indicate"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "that a farm should be viewed as a living organism"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "an organic farm, is not only one that uses certain methods and substances and avoids others"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "it is a farm whose structure is formed in imitation of the structure of a natural system"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "that has the integrity, the independence, and the benign dependence of an organism"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "the use of "organic" refers more narrowly to the use of organic matter derived from plant compost and animal manures"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "to improve the humus content of soils ( Howard and Rodale )"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "the environmental awareness in the general population in modern times"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "has transformed the originally supply-driven organic movement to a demand-driven one"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • IFOAM: "organic agriculture is a production system"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "that sustains the health of soils, ecosystems, and people"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "it relies on ecological processes, biodiversity, and cycles adapted to local conditions"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "organic agriculture combines tradition, innovation and science to benefit the shared environment"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "and promote fair relationships and a good quality of life for all involved"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • Agroecology: "organic farming methods combine scientific knowledge of ecology, and modern technology with traditional farming practices"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "based on naturally occurring biological processes"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "the principal methods of organic farming include crop rotation, green manures and compost, and mechanical cultivation"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "it do not use synthetic pesticides, and water-soluble synthetically purified fertilizers"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "a key characteristic of organic farming is the rejection of genetically engineered seeds, plants and animals"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • note: until now, the research of GMOs ( genetically modified organisms ) has not been in line with organic farming methods

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • ( because of - financial - self-interests of the companies !!! )

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • in general, it would be possible to use GMO in a "constructive" way !

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • ( for example, to "make" old cultivated plants more healthy, more robust, and more durable ! )

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • Biodiversity: "the conservation of natural resources and biodiversity is a core principle of organic production"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "three broad management practices ( prohibition/reduced use of chemical pesticides and inorganic fertilizers"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "sympathetic management of non-cropped habitats - and preservation of mixed farming )"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "are particularly beneficial for farmland wildlife"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "using practices that attract or introduce beneficial insects, provide habitat for birds and mammals"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "and provide conditions that increase soil biotic diversity serve to supply vital ecological services to organic production systems"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "an average of 30% more species inhabit organic farms. Birds, butterflies, soil microbes, beetles, earthworms, ..."

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "organic farming encourages crop diversity"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "the science of agroecology has revealed the benefits of polyculture ( multiple crops in the same space )"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "planting a variety of vegetable crops supports a wider range of beneficial insects, soil microorganisms, and other factors"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "that add up to overall farm health"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "crop diversity helps environments thrive, and protects species from going extinct"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • Soil Conservation: "organically managed soil has a higher quality, and higher water retention"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "organic farming can build up soil organic matter better than conventional no-till farming"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "organic farming uses a variety of methods to improve soil fertility"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "including crop rotation, cover cropping, reduced tillage, and application of compost"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "less carbon is lost to the atmosphere ( ! ), resulting in more soil organic carbon"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "this has an added benefit of carbon sequestration - which can reduce green house gases, and help reverse climate change"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "plants need nitrogen ( phosphorus, and potassium ) to flourish"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "getting enough nitrogen, when plants need it most ( the first growth ), is a challenge"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • note: maybe there could be developed a new sustainable nitrogen fertilizer !!!

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • Standards: "organic agricultural methods are internationally regulated and legally enforced by many nations"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "based in large part on the standards set by the International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements - IFOAM"

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "an international umbrella organization for organic farming organizations established in 1972"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "in the 1990s, a trend toward legislated standards began, most notably with the 1991 EU-Eco-regulation developed for the European Union"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "it was followed by a Japanese program in 2001 - now, over 60 countries regulate organic farming"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "in 2005, IFOAM created the "Principles of Organic Agriculture", an international guideline for certification criteria"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "typically the agencies accredit certification groups rather than individual farms"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "since 1990 the market for organic food has grown rapidly"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "organically managed farmland grew from 2001 to 2011 at a compounding rate of 8.9% per annum"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • Economics: "organic agriculture contributes to ecologically sustainable, socio-economic development"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "especially in poorer countries"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "the economics of organic farming encompasses the entire process, and effects of organic farming"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "in terms of human society, including social costs"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "economics takes an anthropocentric approach to the value of the natural world"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "the European Union is subsidizing organic farming, because it is better for the people and the land"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "but also because European countries want to account for the externalities of reduced water use"

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "reduced water contamination, reduced soil erosion, reduced carbon emissions, and increased biodiversity"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "in most cases, organic farm systems are much more energy efficient, than "conventional" agriculture"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "globally, organic farming is between 22 and 35 percent more profitable for farmers"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "than conventional methods, according to a 2015 meta-analysis of studies conducted across five continents"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "first, organic farmers do not rely on synthetic fertilizer and pesticide inputs, which are costly"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "in addition, organic foods enjoy a price premium over conventionally produced foods"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "meaning that organic farmers often get more for their yield"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization - FAO - said that organic agriculture should be promoted"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "most analysis by agricultural and ecological scientists, and international agriculture experts revealed"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "that organic farming would not only increase the world's food supply"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "but might be the only way to eradicate hunger"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "to feed the current mankind ( and a bigger future population )"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "in the world's poorer nations where most of the world's hungry live"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "adopting organic management actually increases yields 93% on average"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "and should be an important part of increased food security"

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements
- IFOAM: LINK ¤ IFOAM


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