Russia Culture





Literature of the 19th Century - Francine Prose: LINK ¤ NEW YORK TIMES

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  • "in some workings of the 19th-century writers - the individual seem universal !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

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  • "that there is such a thing - as human nature !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "that something about the human heart - and soul !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

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  • "transcends the surface distinctions of nationality - social class - and time !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "for example, the subtlety - with which Turgenev portrays !!!!!!!!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

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  • "the natural landscape - and his meticulously rendered but ultimately mysterious characters !!!!!!!!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "some books of Tolstoy seem to age - and change along with us !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!"

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Interview with Alexander Solzhenitsyn - Spiegel online: LINK ¤ SPIEGEL ONLINE

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  • "the prominent writer and Nobel laureate - Alexander Solzhenitsyn:  !!!!!!!!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

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  • "I have always had - that inner drive !!!!!!!!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

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  • "and I have always devoted myself - gladly to work !!!!!!!!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "I often thinkwhatever the outcome is going to be - let it be !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

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  • "and then things turn out - all right !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "it looks like some good came - out of it !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "I have always believed - in what I did !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

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  • "and never acted - against my conscience !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Spiegel online:  "Putin had said that the collapse of the Soviet Union - was the largest geopolitical disaster of the 20th century !"




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  • "I dare hope that this unhealthy phase - will soon be over !!!!!!!!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

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  • "that all the peoples who have lived through it will understand - that it was to blame for the bitter pages of their history !!!!!!!!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "if we could all take a sober look at our history - then we would no longer see this nostalgic attitude to the past !!!!!!!!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

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  • "only the voluntary and conscientious acceptance by a people of its guilt - can ensure the healing of a nation !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "for example, 1917 had deep roots - first among these was the long-term mutual distrust !!!!!!!!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

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  • "between those in power - and the educated society !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "but greatest responsibility - of course falls on the authorities !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

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Spiegel online:  "you were always in favor - of - civil self-government !"




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  • "yes, I have always insisted on the need - for local self-government for Russia !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

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  • "I have tried to convince my fellow citizens by citing the examples - of highly effective local self-government systems in the world !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "for the grassroots level - and the state is delegating more and more decisions to the local population !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

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  • "( the opposite of - Putin ! ) - ( it had been centralized - and top-down ! )"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "and of course, an opposition is necessary and desirable - for the healthy development of any country !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

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  • "there should be a constructive, clear and large-scale - opposition in Russia !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "as well as the maturing - of other democratic institutions !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "the gap between the rich and the poor - was an extremely dangerous problem in Russia !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

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  • "and it needs the immediate attention - of the state !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "for example, by giving breathing room - to medium and small businesses !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

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  • "that means protecting citizens and small entrepreneurs - from corruption !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "it means investing revenues into the national infrastructure - education - and health care !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

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  • "( without shameful theft - and embezzlement ! )"

 

 





 

 

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Spiegel online:  "the relations between Russia and the West have gotten colder - what is the reason ?!"




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  • "there are many reasons - for example, selfish behaviour of Putin !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "but one interesting is - psychological !!!!!!!!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

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  • "the clash of - illusory hopes !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "the West acted not as a perfect - "knight of democracy"  !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "there was pragmatism - and some actors had their own interests !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!"

 

 

 



 

 

 

 

 

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the Land Reform of 1917
- History:
LINK ¤ HISTORY

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  • "the people in the cities were discontented - with the government !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

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  • "and the government could not take for granted - the consent of the peasants !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "if they lost the support of both groups - then the government was in extreme trouble !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "in 1917, the majority of Russians were peasants - working the land !!!!!!!!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

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  • "the government wanted the peasants - on their side !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "Peter Stolypin, the Minister of the Interior - established the land organisation commissions !!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

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  • "their work led to the two decrees of 1906 - the "October decree" dealt with personal rights !!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "while the "November decree" was considered so important - that it was called the "great Land Decree of 1906"  !!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "the "October Decree" stated that a communal assembly in a village - no longer had the right to impose forced labour on any person from that village !!!!!!!!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "and the "November Decree" stated that any head of a peasant family - who held allotment land by communal tenure !!!!!!!!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

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  • "had the right to claim his share to himself - as private property !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "where no general redistribution of land had taken place - the head of a family had the right !!!!!!!!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

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  • "to claim all the land he worked - within the communal tenure !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "peasants who took the opportunity to own land - were allowed to have whole blocks of land not just strips !!!!!!!!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "what was the impact of the "November Decree"  ?!"

 

 

 

 

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  • "22% of all householders living under communal tenure - had applications for land ownership !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "together with the new land decree in June 1910 - about 50% of the total number of peasant households !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!"

 

 

 

 

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  • "were affected by these - land reforms !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!"

 

 



 

 

 

 

 

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Berezovsky - Abramovich - the Guardian: LINK ¤ the GUARDIAN

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  • ""krysha" - literally it meant "roof" in Russian !"

 

 

 

 

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  • "but it carried a kaleidoscope of other associations - an arrangement, lobbying, political services, icebreaking, and protection !"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "Abramovich's case is that he hired Berezovsky - to give him krysha !"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "in 1994 Abramovich was a relatively - small-scale oil trader !"

 

 

 

 

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  • "in 1995, with Berezovsky's help - Abramovich won a rigged auction for an oil company and refinery !"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "in return Abramovich made regular under-the-table payments - to Berezovsky !"

 

 


 

 

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  • "Abramovich said he also coughed up for Berezovsky's private jet travel - and bought him a chateau in France !"

 

 

 

 

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  • "Berezovsky doesn't deny - the payments !"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

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RUSSIAN CULTURE - Wikipedia EN:
LINK ¤ RUSSIAN CULTURE

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