Jordan



Jordan Report - BBC: LINK ¤ B B C

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  • "the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan is a small country with few natural resources, but it has played a pivotal role in the struggle for power in the Middle East"

 

 

 

 

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  • "Jordan's significance results partly from its strategic location at the crossroads of what Christians, Jews and Muslims call the Holy Land"

 

 

 

 

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  • "the desert kingdom emerged out of the post-WW I division of the Middle East by Britain and France"

 

 

 

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  • "the population at that time was largely made up of tribes"

 

 

 

 

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  • "today, those original inhabitants - known as East Bank Jordanians - are outnumbered by the descendants of Palestinian refugees from Israel and the West Bank"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "the death in 1999 of King Hussein, who ruled for 46 years, left Jordan still struggling for economic and social survival, as well as regional peace"

 

 

 

 

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  • "his son, Abdullah II faces the task of maintaining stability while accommodating calls for reform"

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "a blueprint for long-term political, economic and social change"

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "known as the "National Agenda" - has yet to be implemented"

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "the Arab Spring found some resonance in street protests"

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "Jordan hosts 600,000 Syrian refugees"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "unlike Arab states to the south and east, Jordan has no oil of its own. Its resources are limited to phosphates and agricultural produce"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "Jordan's cultural heritage, such as the rock city of Petra, is popular with tourists"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Election Test for Jordanian Reform - the Guardian: LINK ¤ the GUARDIAN

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  • "elections in Arab monarchies rarely make much impact"

 

 

 

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  • "but when Jordanians vote for a new Parliament the event will still be watched carefully across the Middle East and beyond"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "King Abdullah called the elections ahead of schedule, to develop stable parliamentary government"

 

 

 

 

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  • "and the political parties to sustain it - a cautious response to the unsettling past two years of the Arab spring"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "the Hirak protest movement and three smaller parties are boycotting the polls as a "meaningless gimmick""

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "Jordan has certainly been shaken by regional turbulence but has weathered the storm. Criticism of the king, once utterly taboo and still risky, is finding its way into social media"

 

 

 

 

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  • "the economy is a weak point"

 

 

 

 

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  • "a US$ 2bn loan from the IMF has required slashing subsidies on cooking gas and petrol"

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "steep price rises triggered protests"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "the official line in Amman is that there is a "Jordanian vision""

 

 

 

 

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  • "of how to make gradual progress towards a democratic system while preserving a monarchy"

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "constitutional reforms over the last year gave more authority to the chamber of deputies"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "which will have a freer hand to draw up legislation and a bigger role in monitoring the cabinet"

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "for the first time the King is promising to consult Parliament before appointing the prime minister"

 

 

 

 

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  • "though the King will still be able to sack him"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "the new Parliament looks set to be dominated by independent candidates"

 

 

 

 

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  • "the electorate is being wooed to elect individuals based on their name and tribe rather than their policies and experiences"

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "one undoubted advance is the creation of an independent electoral commission"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "run by the highly-regarded Abdulillah al-Khatib, a former foreign minister"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "it has taken over responsibility for voting from the interior ministry"

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "which should prevent a repeat of the meddling by the powerful Mukhabarat security service in the last two elections"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


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Capital: Amman -GoJ = Government of Jordan ]

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US Investment - US cable - 2005: LINK ¤ 05AMMAN531

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  • "since King Abdullah II succeeded to the throne in 1999"

 

 

 

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  • "Jordan has taken steps to encourage foreign investment"

 

 

 

 

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  • "reforms have been undertaken in the information technology, pharmaceuticals"

 

 

 

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  • "tourism, and services sectors"

 

 

 

 

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  • "Jordan acceded to the World Trade Organization (WTO) in April 2000"

 

 

 

 

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  • "a US-Jordan free trade agreement (FTA) entered into force on December 17, 2001"

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "these developments will likely lead to expanded investment opportunities in Jordan for US investors"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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US Trade - US cable - 2002:
LINK ¤ 02AMMAN5485l

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  • "the Qualifying Industrial Zones (QIZ) in combination with Jordan's free trade agreement with the US"

 

 

 

 

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  • "will eliminate tariffs on all textile products"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Elite - US cable - 2003:
LINK ¤ 03AMMAN1063

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  • "Jordan's economic elite as a group round out the pillars upon which the Hashemite monarchy leans for support"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "this elite, representing no more than five percent of the population"

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "controls 85 percent or more of the kingdom's wealth"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "the first, and often most visible, is the (often Christian) Palestinian business class"

 

 

 

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  • "this group is represented by a relatively small number of family groups, many with historic ties to the West Bank and Gaza"

 

 

 

 

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  • "this group is involved in literally every aspect of economic life in Jordan - agriculture, light and heavy manufacturing"

 

 

 

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  • "trading, services, banking, real estate development, shipping, tourism and travel"

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "the second group consists of long-established "East Bank" families"

 

 

 

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  • "a majority of these families have traditionally been heavily tied into trade with Iraq"

 

 

 

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  • "industrial and chemical goods, agricultural products, and "middle man" services"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "the final group is best characterized as "new economy" entrepreneurs"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "this group has benefited markedly from the King's program of economic reform"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "this group supports the King because it identifies with him as a contemporary"

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "relies on him"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "to ensure the future of their businesses"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "it often finds itself at odds with much of Jordan's population"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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US Trade - US cable - 2003: LINK ¤ 03AMMAN3991

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  • "King Abdullah convened a breakfast meeting with US secretary Powell and trade representative Zoellick"

 

 

 

 

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  • "Zoellick took the floor to describe how the United States foresaw realizing the US president's (Bush) regional trade vision"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "working to bring countries not currently members of the WTO into that organization"

 

 

 

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  • "negotiating trade and investment framework agreements (TIFAs)"

 

 

 

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  • "concluding bilateral investment treaties (BITs)"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "the United States would provide assistance"

 

 

 

 

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  • "particularly through the MEPI program"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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MEPI Program - US cable - 2003: LINK ¤ 03AMMAN4038

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  • "US - Middle East partnership initiative:"

 

 

 

 

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  • "pursuing sound economic policies"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "and trade and investment liberalization"

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "foster ties between US and Jordanian business associations"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "sponsored by US and Jordanian business community"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Copyright - US cable - 2004:
LINK ¤ 04AMMAN2574

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  • "the United States requests for copyright and software protections:"

 

 

 

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  • "copyright amendments are expected to be passed by the cabinet and presented to parliament"

 

 

 

 

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comment US:


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  • "we got just about everything we asked for"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "in the draft copyright law amendments"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Financial Crisis - US cable - 2009:
LINK ¤ 09AMMAN136

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  • "although Jordan's conservative banking and mortgage practices"

 

 

 

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  • "have partially protected the country from the international financial crisis"

 

 

 

 

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  • "Jordan's economy is still suffering from a credit crunch"

 

 

 

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  • "for most Jordanians, inflation remains their top economic concern"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Jordanian Dinar - US cable - 2008: LINK ¤ 08AMMAN146

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  • "the JD has been pegged to the US dollar at an exchange rate of 1 JD to US$ 1.41 since 1995"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "this peg benefits American exporters"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "able to serve a small market"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Trade Deficit - US cable - 2009:
LINK ¤ 09AMMAN672

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  • "Jordan's trade deficit hit a historic high of US$ 9.1 billion"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "compared to US$ 2.7 billion in 2000, when Jordan joined the World Trade Organization (WTO)"

 

 

 

 

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  • "and signed the US-Jordan free trade agreement"

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "as a percentage of GDP"

 

 

 

 

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  • "the trade deficit has hovered between 42-49%"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Poverty - US cable - 2007: LINK ¤ 07AMMAN4790

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  • "780,000 Jordanians are living below the poverty line"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "of two US dollars per day"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Inflation - US cable - 2008: LINK ¤ 08AMMAN2369

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  • "inflation in Jordan continues to rise"

 

 

 

 

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  • "Jordan's Department of Statistics (DOS) reported a 2.3% increase in the monthly Consumer Price Index (CPI)"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "the year-on-year CPI has increased 19.4%"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "the highest growth was in fuel (78%)"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "cereals and grain products (43%), cooking oil (40%), and dairy (40%)"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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JORDAN - Wikipedia EN:
LINK ¤ JORDAN

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  • "Jordan, officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, is an Arab kingdom in the Middle East, on the East Bank of the Jordan River, and extending into the historic region of Palestine"

 

 

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  • "Jordan borders Saudi Arabia to the south and east, Iraq to the north-east, Syria to the north, Palestine and Israel to the west, sharing control of the Dead Sea with the latter"

 

 

 

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  • Population: 8.0 million

 

 

 

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Al-Urdun - Wikipedia AR: LINK ¤ Al-Urdun
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