Multinational Corporation




Apple ordered to pay up to € 13bn
- the Guardian: LINK ¤ the GUARDIAN

_________________________________________

 

  • "Apple has been ordered to pay a record figure of up to13bn in back taxes"

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • the European Commission: "Apple got illegal help with tax breaks in Ireland"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "Ireland’s tax arrangements with Apple between 1991 and 2015 had allowed the US company to attribute sales to a "head office""

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "that existed on paper only and could not have generated such profits"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "the result was that Apple avoided tax on almost all profits from sales of its products across the EU"

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "by booking the profits in Ireland rather than the country in which the product was sold"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "the taxable profits of Apple Sales International and Apple Operations Europe did not correspond to economic reality"

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "Apple paid an effective tax rate of 1% in 2003 on profits"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "the rate dropped to 0.005% in 2014"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • Margrethe Vestager, the European competition commissioner: "member states cannot give tax benefits to selected companies"

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "Ireland granted illegal tax benefits to Apple"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "Vestager suggested other countries could claim unpaid tax from Apple for the same period"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • Richard Murphy, tax campaigner and a Professor in international political economy at City University in London:

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "this is a great day for the sovereignty of the EU’s nations"

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "they will now be able to choose their own tax policies knowing another state should not be consciously undermining them when doing so"

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "the Irish state has for too long been committed to tax abuse, unfair competition and secrecy"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "all of which are designed to undermine fair competition and increase inequality"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

______________________________________________________________________________

the Apple Tax Ruling - what this means for Multinationals - the Guardian: LINK ¤ the GUARDIAN

_________________________________________

 

  • "the European Commission has ordered Apple to pay back the Irish state up to € 13bn in taxes in a landmark ruling"

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "Apple paid a tax rate on European profits of between 0.005% and 1%"

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "it will have ramifications for countries and companies across Europe"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "the sweetheart deal allowed Apple to shift up to two-thirds of its global profits"

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "through a handful of Irish-registered companies"

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "that routinely paid less than 1% tax"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "over the past four years the commission has been looking at similar generous tax deals handed out to multinationals"

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "tax rulings from Luxembourg and the Netherlands - granted to Starbucks and Fiat respectively"

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "have already been found unlawful"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "meanwhile, regulators are also investigating a tax deal from Luxembourg awarded to both McDonald’s and Amazon"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "Ireland will have to recalculate years of back taxes and send Apple a large bill"

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "that will boost Ireland’s public purse, but in the longer term it will damage its reputation as an attractive place for multinational companies such as Facebook and Google"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "the so-called "double Irish" tax structure, which has been used by Google, Facebook, Microsoft and Apple, is being phased out"

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "however, Ireland has had other replacement tax breaks for multinationals"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "the last place American multinationals want to move profits is back home to the US"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "therefore they would prefer to be taxed in Europe"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "(90% of Apple's cash stockpile is kept outside the US)"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

______________________________________________________________________________

why Microsoft wants a Loan for LinkedIn - Bloomberg: LINK ¤ BLOOMBERG

_________________________________________

 

  • "Microsoft has enough cash to buy LinkedIn - so why is it taking out a big loan to pay for its latest purchase ?"

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "because it’ll lower the tax bill"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "Microsoft will avoid having to pay a 35 percent tax rate to repatriate cash from overseas accounts"

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "while it’s true that Microsoft has more than US$ 100 billion in cash and cash equivalents, most of it is parked offshore"

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "bringing home any of it to fund the proposed US$ 26.2 billion purchase would generate a tax bill"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "the company could also deduct interest payments, thus lowering its future US tax bill"

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "roughly US$ 9 billion in US taxes this year"

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "and save millions more in the years to come by using interest deductions to reduce its taxable income"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "but financing the LinkedIn purchase with debt could leave Microsoft in a spot - rich abroad and strapped in the US"

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "Moody’s placed Microsoft’s Aaa senior unsecured rating under review for downgrade, citing the company’s debt and overseas cash hoard as factors"

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "the company has only US$ 3 billion in cash in the US"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • “it’s an odd world where a company is awash in cash and chooses to make the acquisition with debts because they don’t want to pay tax"

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "said Robert McIntyre, executive director of Citizens for Tax Justice"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "it is another example of the way the US tax code encourages corporations to use bookkeeping maneuvers to avoid taxes"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

______________________________________________________________________________

Tobacco Companies ordered to pay US$ 12bn in Damages in Canada - the Guardian: LINK ¤ the GUARDIAN

_________________________________________

 

  • "a Canadian court has awarded C$ 15.6bn (US$ 12bn) in damages to smokers from three major tobacco companies"

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "superior court justice Brian Riordan: the companies had put profits before the health of their customers"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "in a scathing judgment against three tobacco companies - Imperial Tobacco Canada, a subsidiary of British American Tobacco"

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "Rothmans, Benson & Hedges, a subsidiary of Philip Morris; and JTI Macdonald Ltd, part of Japan Tobacco"

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "the companies earned billions of dollars at the expense of the lungs, the throats and the general well-being of their customers"

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "more than a million smokers and former smokers in Quebec were seeking damages, on the grounds that the companies knew they were selling a harmful product but concealed the risks"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

______________________________________________________________________________

Apple and Google hiring Practices - the Guardian: LINK ¤ the GUARDIAN

_________________________________________

 

  • "technology companies including Apple and Google agreed to settle an embarrassing antitrust lawsuit"

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "that exposed the dark side of Silicon Valley’s hiring practices"

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "Apple, Adobe, Google and Intel with 64,000 workers"

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "orchestrated an elaborate scheme to prevent poaching and drive down wages"

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "including Google’s Sergey Brin and Eric Schmidt and Apple's Steve Jobs"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "a Justice Department investigation concluded that several companies shared confidential salary information"

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "to prevent bidding wars and promised not to call each other's staff"

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "emails from Jobs and Schmidt emerged in pre-trial hearings"

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "Schmidt told Jobs that a Google recruiter would be fired after approaching an Apple employee"

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "Jobs forwarded Schmidt's note to a top Apple human resources executive, with a smiley face"

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "Walt Disney's Lucasfilm and Pixar and the software company Intuit agreed to a settlement over the same hiring practice"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

______________________________________________________________________________

Apple Tax Avoidance - the Guardian: LINK ¤ the GUARDIAN

_________________________________________

 

  • "Apple has avoided paying billions in US tax by creating offshore entities"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "that are not tax resident anywhere"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "during its investigations, the US Subcommittee found that Apple considers three key subsidiaries"

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "all based in Ireland, to have no tax jurisdiction at all"

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "one of those Irish affiliates, Apple Sales International (ASI), reported"

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "sales income of US$ 74bn over four years"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "but paid hardly any tax"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "ASI had pre-tax earnings of US$ 22bn but paid just US$ 10m in tax, a rate of 0.05%"

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • Senator Carl Levin, the US Subcommittee's Chairman:

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "Apple sought the Holy Grail of tax avoidance"

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "it has created offshore entities holding tens of billions of dollars"

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "while claiming to be tax resident nowhere"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "Ireland were not even implementing their own tax rate"

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "but worked out a deal with Apple for a 2% rate"

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "instead of a 12% tax rate which Ireland is supposed to have"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

______________________________________________________________________________

Amazon Tax Avoidance - the Guardian: LINK ¤ the GUARDIAN

_________________________________________

 

  • "Amazon's main UK company paid just £ 3.2m in corporation tax on sales of £ 320m last year"

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "however, the Seattle-based group has told investors its UK sales were £ 4.2bn"

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "Amazon received £ 2.5m in government grants"

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "as well as significant tax breaks for building new warehouses"

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "Amazon tells the taxman its main UK-focused business, which collects revenue from British shoppers"

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "but is incorporated in Luxembourg"

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "cannot be classed as a "permanent establishment" in Britain"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

______________________________________________________________________________

Google Tax Avoidance - the Guardian: LINK ¤ the GUARDIAN

_________________________________________

 

  • "Google and Amazon came under fierce attack from UK MPs and tax campaigners"

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "Margaret Hodge, chair of the public accounts committee, told Google's northern Europe boss, Matt Brittin"

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "that his company's behaviour on tax was devious, calculated and unethical"

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "he had been recalled by MPs after being accused of misleading parliament over the firm's tax affairs"

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • Hodge: "you are a company that says you 'do no evil'. I think that you do do evil"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

______________________________________________________________________________

big four Accountants help Rich to avoid Taxes - the Guardian: LINK ¤ the GUARDIAN

_________________________________________

 

  • "the "big four" accountancy firms are using knowledge gained from staff seconded to the UK Ministry of Treasury"

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "to help wealthy clients avoid paying taxes"

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "Deloitte, Ernst & Young, KPMG and PricewaterhouseCoopers"

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "have provided the government with expert accountants to draw up tax laws"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "but the firms went on to advise multinationals and individuals"

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "on how to exploit loopholes around legislation they had helped to write"

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "the large accountancy firms are in a powerful position in the tax world"

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "and have an unhealthily cosy relationship with government"

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "the accountancy giants employed almost 9,000 staff and earned £ 2bn from their tax work in the UK"

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "and £ 25bn globally"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • transfer pricing: "complex transactions deployed by multinational companies"

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "in order to shift taxable profits to low tax jurisdictions"

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • Prem Sikka, Professor of accounting at University of Essex:

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "the big four are the epicentre of a global tax avoidance industry"

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "and the loss of tax revenues is directly responsible for the current economic crisis"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________



Microsoft's Bribery
- Wall Street Journal: LINK ¤ WALL STREET JOURNAL

_________________________________________

 

  • "US Federal regulators are investigating Microsoft's relationship with business partners"

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "that bribed foreign government officials"

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "in return for software contracts"

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "an executive of Microsoft's China subsidiary instructed"

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "the tipster to offer kickbacks to Chinese officials in return for signing off on software contracts"

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "Microsoft's Italian unit used consultants as vehicles"

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "for lavishing gifts and trips on Italian procurement officials"

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "in exchange for government business"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

______________________________________________________________________________

Australia on Multinationals - the Guardian: LINK ¤ the GUARDIAN

_________________________________________

 

  • "Australia will force corporate giants such as Google and Apple"

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "to disclose their tax arrangements"

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "to curb tax avoidance by multinational corporations"

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "the increasingly borderless global economy means big firms often have no tax liability in a country"

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "even with a major local presence, said assistant treasurer David Bradbury"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "the measures will require 2,000 large and multinational businesses"

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "including miners BHP Billiton and Rio Tinto with yearly revenue of A$ 100m or more"

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "to have their tax details published by the government"

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "to shut down loopholes that risk the loss of more than A$ 1bn in government revenues each year"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

______________________________________________________________________________

Tax Loopholes - the Guardian: LINK ¤ the GUARIAN

_________________________________________

 

  • "Starbucks has not paid tax in the UK for three years"

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "Starbucks has paid only £ 8.6m income tax since 1998 on £ 3.1bn sales"

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "thanks to reporting consistent losses"

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "Finance Ministers Osborne and Schäuble, meeting at the G20 summit in Mexico, had called for"

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "concerted international co-operation to strengthen international tax standards"

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________
  • "the spread of e-commerce, and the ponderous nature of international corporate tax rules had left governments trailing"

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "as multinationals shift profits around the globe"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________



APPLE
- Wikipedia EN
: LINK ¤ APPLE

_________________________________________

  • "Apple Inc. is an American company: computer hardware and software"

 


 

_________________________________________

[ revenue US$ 233.71 billion (2015) - net income US$ 53.39 billion (2015) ]







_________________________________________
  • "in 2011, Apple's profit margins were 40 percent"

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________
  • "almost all of its manufacturing is handled abroad"

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "the corporation continued to receive significant criticism regarding the labor practices of its contractors"

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "and its environmental and business practices, including the origins of source materials"

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "one complex of factories that assembled the iPod and other items had over 200,000 workers living and working within it"

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "employees regularly worked more than 60 hours per week and made around US$ 100 per month"

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "a little over half of the workers' earnings was required to pay for rent and food from the company"

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________
  • "Apple was the pioneer of an accounting technique known as the "Double Irish with a Dutch sandwich""

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "which reduces taxes by routing profits through Irish subsidiaries and the Netherlands and then to the Caribbean"

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________
  • "in 2015 Apple had earnings abroad of US$ 54.4 billion which were untaxed by the IRS"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

______________________________________________________________________________

MICROSOFT - Wikipedia EN: LINK ¤ MICROSOFT

_________________________________________

  • "Microsoft Corporation is an American corporation: computer software"

 


 

_________________________________________

[ revenue US$ 93.58 billion (2015) - net income US$ 12.19 billion (2015) ]







_________________________________________
  • "criticism of Microsoft has followed the company's existence because of its products and business practices"

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "ease of use, stability, and security of the company's software are common targets for critics"

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "Microsoft is accused of locking vendors into their products"

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "and not following and complying with existing standards in its software"

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "the company has been in numerous lawsuits by several governments and other companies"

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "for unlawful monopolistic practices"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

______________________________________________________________________________
HEWLETT-PACKARD - Wikipedia EN: LINK ¤ HEWLETT-PACKARD

_________________________________________

  • "Hewlett-Packard Company, HP, is an American corporation: computer hardware and software"

 

 

 

_________________________________________

[ revenue US$ 111.45 billion (2014) - net income US$ 5.01 billion (2014) ]










 

 

______________________________________________________________________________

GOOGLE - Wikipedia EN: LINK ¤ GOOGLE

_________________________________________

  • "Google is an American corporation: Internet-search"

 

 

_________________________________________

[ revenue US$ 66.00 billion (2014) - net income US$ 14.44 billion (2014) ]






_________________________________________
  • "96% of Google's revenue"

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "is derived from its advertising programs"

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "Google tries to determine user interests and target advertisements"

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "its market dominance has led to prominent media coverage"

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "including criticism of the company over issues such as search neutrality, copyright, censorship, and privacy"

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "Google's tax avoidance strategies:"

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "out of the five largest American technology companies"

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "it pays the lowest taxes to the countries of origin of its revenues"

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "by licensing technology through subsidiaries in Ireland, Bermuda, the Bahamas, and the Netherlands"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________



IBM
- Wikipedia EN
: LINK ¤ I B M

_________________________________________

  • "the International Business Machines Corporation is an American corporation: computer hardware and software"

 


 

_________________________________________

[ revenue US$ 81.74 billion (2015) - net income US$ 13.19 billion (2015) ]










 

 

 

______________________________________________________________________________

FACEBOOK - Wikipedia EN: LINK ¤ FACEBOOK

_________________________________________

  • "Facebook is an American company: online social service"

 

 

 

_________________________________________

[ revenue US$ 17.92 billion (2015) - net income US$ 3.68 billion (2015) ]








_________________________________________
  • "Facebook has over one billion users (1.65)"

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "most of it's revenue comes from advertising"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________



SONY
- Wikipedia EN: LINK ¤ SONY

_________________________________________

  • "Sony Corporation is a Japanese corporation: electronics and games"

 

 

 

_________________________________________

[ revenue  US$ 79.30 billion (2015) - net income  US$ 1.44 billion (2015) ]










 

 

 

______________________________________________________________________________

COCA-COLA - Wikipedia EN: LINK ¤ COCA-COLA

_________________________________________

  • "Coca-Cola Company is an American corporation: beverages"

 


 

_________________________________________

[ revenue US$ 44.29 billion (2015) - net income US$ 7.35 billion (2015) ]







_________________________________________
  • "it has been involved in controversies and lawsuits related to human rights violations and other unethical practices"

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "a number of lawsuits have been filed in relation to its monopolistic and discriminatory practices"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

______________________________________________________________________________

MONDELEZ - Wikipedia EN: LINK ¤ MONDELEZ

_________________________________________

  • "Mondelez International Inc, Kraft Foods, is an American corporation: biscuits and gum"

 


 

_________________________________________

[ revenue US$ 33.20 billion (2014) - profit US$ 2.18 billion (2014) ]











 

 

______________________________________________________________________________

MARS - Wikipedia EN: LINK ¤ MARS

_________________________________________

  • "Mars Inc is an American corporation: confectionery and pet food"

 

 

 

_________________________________________

[ revenue US$ 33.00 billion (2015) ]











 

 

______________________________________________________________________________

PHILIP MORRIS - Wikipedia EN: LINK ¤ PHILIP MORRIS

_________________________________________

  • "Philip Morris International Inc is an American company: cigarettes and tobacco"

 

 

 

_________________________________________

[ revenue US$ 80.10 billion (2014) - net income US$ 7.65 billion (2014) ]




_________________________________________
  • "it owns 7 of the top 15 tobacco brands"

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________
  • "because tobacco is the single greatest cause of preventable death globally and is addictive"

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "the company's operations are highly controversial and the subject of litigation and restrictive legislation from governments"

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "concerned about the health impacts of its products"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

______________________________________________________________________________

Altria Group - Source Watch: LINK ¤ ALTRIA GROUP

_________________________________________

  • "the US Department of Justice filed a lawsuit against Philip Morris (now a division of Altria) and other major cigarette manufacturers"

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "US District Court Judge Gladys Kessler found that the Government had proven its case"

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "and that the tobacco company defendants had violated the Racketeer Influenced Corrupt Organizations Act (RICO)"

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "Philip Morris and other tobacco companies had conspired to minimize"

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "distort and confuse the public about the health hazards of smoking"

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "concealed and suppressed research data showing nicotine is addictive"

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "denied that they can and do control the levels of nicotine in cigarettes to keep smokers addicted"

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "marketed "light" and "low tar" brands to mislead people about their relative harmfulness"

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "publicly denied, while internally acknowledging, that secondhand tobacco smoke is harmful to nonsmokers"

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "and destroyed documents relevant to litigation"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

______________________________________________________________________________

MC DONALD's - Wikipedia EN: LINK ¤ MC DONALD's

_________________________________________

  • "McDonald's Corporation is an American company: fast food"

 

 

 

_________________________________________

[ revenue US$ 25.41 billion (2015) - net income US$ 4.52 billion (2015) ]







_________________________________________
  • "McDonald's has for decades maintained an extensive advertising campaign"

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "the term "McJob" is defined as a low-paying job that requires little skill and provides little opportunity for advancement"

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "the book "Fast Food Nation" shows the business practices of McDonald's"

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "that it (along with other companies in the fast food industry) uses its political influence to increase its profits"

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "at the expense of people's health"

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "and the social conditions of its workers"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

______________________________________________________________________________

US fast-Food Workers go on Strike to protest low Pay - Reuters: LINK ¤ REUTERS

_________________________________________

  • "US fast-food workers went on strike, aiming to convince thousands of restaurants"

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "they make huge profits from paying them a pittance and that they deserve a raise"

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "the strike is the latest in a series of US protests over the past 18 months that have targeted fast-food restaurant operators"

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "including McDonald's and Burger King"

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "fast-food workers are seeking wages of US$ 15 an hour"

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "and the right to unionize without retaliation"

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "strikes were expected to be held in 150 cities, including Boston, Chicago, New York, Philadelphia and Miami"

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "US President Barack Obama has pushed Congress to raise the federal minimum wage to US$ 10.10 per hour"

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "from the current US$ 7.25, a move fought by Republicans in Congress"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

______________________________________________________________________________

Fastfood-Mitarbeiter in USA fordern mehr Lohn - der Standard: LINK ¤ der STANDARD

_________________________________________

  • "Mitarbeiter von Fastfood-Ketten wie McDonald's und Burger King haben in den USA einmal mehr"

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "für eine bessere Bezahlung und mehr Arbeitnehmerrechte protestiert"

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "unter anderem in New York, Los Angeles, Chicago und Miami"

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "die Mitarbeiter fordern eine Verdopplung ihres Stundenlohns auf 15 Dollar"

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "und das Recht, sich in den Betrieben gewerkschaftlich zu organisieren"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

______________________________________________________________________________

AIG - Wikipedia EN: LINK ¤ A I G

_________________________________________

  • "American International Group Inc is an American corporation: insurances"

 

 

 

_________________________________________

[ revenue US$ 64.40 billion (2014) - net income US$ 7.52 billion (2014) ]







_________________________________________
  • "2008, the insurer had sold credit protection through its London unit in the form of credit default swaps (CDSs)"

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "he had entered into US$ 441 billion worth of securities, by the AIG Financial Products division"

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________
  • "as a result, AIG’s credit rating was downgraded, leading to a liquidity crisis that bankrupted all of AIG"

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________
  • "the US Federal Reserve Bank stepped in"

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "in form of a secured credit facility of US$ 85 billion"

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "to prevent the company's collapse"

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "US Treasury and the Federal Reserve Bank of New York provided a total US$ 182.3 billion to AIG"

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "2009, AIG announced that they were paying US$ 165 million in executive bonuses"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

______________________________________________________________________________

ALLIANZ - Wikipedia EN: LINK ¤ ALLIANZ

_________________________________________

  • "Allianz is a German company: insurances"

 

 

 

_________________________________________

[ revenue € 122.30 billion (2014) - profit € 6.60 billion (2014) ]










 

 

______________________________________________________________________________

AXA - Wikipedia EN: LINK ¤ A X A

_________________________________________

  • "AXA SA is a French company: insurances"

 

 

 

_________________________________________

[ revenue € 98.53 billion (2015) - profit € 5.61 billion (2015) ]










 

 

______________________________________________________________________________

GENERALI - Wikipedia EN: LINK ¤ GENERALI

_________________________________________

  • "Assicurazioni Generali SpA is an Italian company: insurances"

 

 

 

_________________________________________

[ revenue € 70.43 billion (2014) - profit € 1.67 billion (2014) ]










 

 

______________________________________________________________________________

LLOYDS - Wikipedia EN: LINK ¤ LLOYDS

_________________________________________

  • "Lloyds Banking Group plc is a British company: insurances"

 


 

_________________________________________

[ revenue £ 11.83 billion (2015) - net income £ 0.95 billion (2015) ]










 

 

 

______________________________________________________________________________

MUNICH RE - Wikipedia EN: LINK ¤ MUNICH RE

_________________________________________

  • "Munich Re Group is a German company: re-insurance"

 

 

 

_________________________________________

[ revenue € 50.40 billion (2015) - operating income € 4.81 billion (2015) ]










 

 

______________________________________________________________________________

SWISS RE - Wikipedia EN: LINK ¤ SWISS RE

_________________________________________

  • "Swiss Reinsurance Company Ltd is a Swiss company: re-insurance"

 

 

 

_________________________________________

[ revenue US$ 35.71 billion (2015) - profit US$ 4.59 billion (2015) ]




















 

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________



PRICEWATERHOUSE COOPERS
- Wikipedia EN
: LINK ¤ P W C

_________________________________________

  • "PricewaterhouseCoopers, PwC, is a British company: professional services"

 

 

 

_________________________________________

[ revenue US$ 35.40 billion (2015) ]






_________________________________________

  • "advisory and tax (transfer pricing)"

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "PwC received US$ 55m from Caterpillar Inc to develop a tax avoidance scheme, according to an investigation of the Senate"

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "US$ 8bn in profits were shifted from the US to Switzerland"

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "in Switzerland profits were taxed at 4%"

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "a partner who was involved in designing the tax savings plan commented: "we'll all be retired when this comes up on audit""

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

______________________________________________________________________________

DELOITTE - Wikipedia EN: LINK ¤ DELOITTE

_________________________________________

  • "Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu Limited is a British company: professional services"

 

 

 

_________________________________________

[ revenue US$ 35.20 billion (2015) ]






_________________________________________

  • "it is one of the "big four" professional services firms"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

______________________________________________________________________________

ERNST & YOUNG - Wikipedia EN: LINK ¤ ERNST&YOUNG

_________________________________________

  • "Ernst & Young, EY, is a British company: professional services"

 

 


_________________________________________

[ revenue US$ 28.70 billion (2015) ]






_________________________________________

  • "tax and consulting"

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "the Valukas Report issued in 2010 charged that Lehman Brothers engaged in a practice known as repo 105"

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "and that EY, Lehman's auditor, was aware of it"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

______________________________________________________________________________

KPMG - Wikipedia EN: LINK ¤ KPMG

_________________________________________

  • "KPMG is a company in the Netherlands: professional services"

 

 

 

_________________________________________

[ revenue US$ 24.44 billion (2015) ]







_________________________________________
  • "KPMG was accused by the US Department of Justice of fraud in marketing abusive tax shelters"

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "KPMG admitted criminal wrongdoing in creating fraudulent tax shelters"

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "to help wealthy clients avoid US$ 2.5 billion in taxes"

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "and agreed to pay US$ 456 million in penalties"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

______________________________________________________________________________

Arthur Andersen - Wikipedia EN: LINK ¤ ARTHUR ANDERSEN

_________________________________________

  • "Arthur Andersen LLP, was formerly one of the "big five" accounting firms"

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "2002, the firm voluntarily surrendered its licenses to practice in the US"

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "after being found guilty of criminal charges relating to the firm's handling of the auditing of Enron"

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "the scandal in which US$ 100bn in revenue from energy giant Enron"

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "was found to have sustained itself by means of institutional and systematic accounting fraud"

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "the US Powers Committee came to the following assessment:"

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "the evidence available to us suggests that Andersen did not fulfill its professional responsibilities"

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "in connection with its audits of Enron's financial statements"

 

 

 

 

 


_________________________________________

  • "Andersen was convicted of obstruction of justice for shredding documents"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

______________________________________________________________________________

OMNICOM Group - Wikipedia EN: LINK ¤ OMNICOM

_________________________________________

  • "Omnicom Group Inc is an American company: advertising"

 

 

 

_________________________________________

[ revenue US$ 15.13 billion (2015) - operating income US$ 1.92 billion (2015) ]






_________________________________________

  • "advertising and marketing"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

______________________________________________________________________________

WPP Group - Wikipedia EN: LINK ¤ W P P

_________________________________________

  • "WPP plc is a British company: advertising"

 

 

 

_________________________________________

[ revenue £ 12.23 billion (2015) - net income £ 1.24 billion (2015) ]







_________________________________________
  • "WPP goes to great lengths to lower its own corporate tax bill"

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "paying only 1.6% of total revenue in taxes"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

______________________________________________________________________________

IPG - Wikipedia EN: LINK ¤ I P G

_________________________________________

  • "Interpublic Group of Companies Inc is an American company: advertising"

 

 

 

_________________________________________

[ revenue US$ 7.61 billion (2015) - net income US$ 0.48 billion (2015) ]







_________________________________________
  • "advertising and marketing"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

______________________________________________________________________________

PUBLICIS Group - Wikipedia EN: LINK ¤ PUBLICIS

_________________________________________

  • "Publicis Groupe is a French company: advertising"

 

 

 

_________________________________________

[ revenue US$ 9.60 billion (2014) - profit US$ 0.93 billion (2014) ]







_________________________________________
  • "it is one of the "big four" advertising companies"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

______________________________________________________________________________

BHP BILLITON - Wikipedia EN: LINK ¤ BHP BILLITON

_________________________________________

  • "BHP Billiton is an Anglo-Australian company: mining and petroleum"

 

 

 

_________________________________________

[ revenue US$ 45.86 billion (2014) - profit US$ 1.91 billion (2015) ]














 

______________________________________________________________________________

RIO TINTO - Wikipedia EN: LINK ¤ RIO TINTO

_________________________________________

  • "Rio Tinto Group is a British company: mining and metals"

 

 

 

_________________________________________

[ revenue US$ 34.82 billion (2015) - profit US$ 1.71 billion (2015) ]






_________________________________________

  • "Rio Tinto Group has been widely criticised by environmentalist groups for its mining activities"

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "safety and labour rights concerns have been raised by unions and political action groups"

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "the CFMEU (Construction, Forestry, Mining and Energy Union) ran a campaign against the company"

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "after it tried to de-unionise its workforce"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

______________________________________________________________________________

VALE - Wikipedia EN: LINK ¤ VALE

_________________________________________

  • "Vale S.A. is a Brazilian company: mining and metals"

 

 

 

_________________________________________

[ revenue US$ 26.04 billion (2015) - net income US$ -17.72 billion (2015) ]






_________________________________________

  • "its foreign activities are based in the Cayman Islands, a noted offshore tax haven"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

______________________________________________________________________________

ANGLO AMERICAN - Wikipedia EN: LINK ¤ ANGLO AMERICAN

_________________________________________

  • "Anglo American plc is a British company: mining"

 

 

 

_________________________________________

[ revenue US$ 20.45 billion (2015) - net income US$ 5.84 billion (2015) ]













 

______________________________________________________________________________

GLENCORE XSTRATA - Wikipedia EN: LINK ¤ GLENCORE XSTRATA

_________________________________________

  • "Glencore Xstrata plc is an Anglo-Swiss company: mining and trading"

 

 

 

_________________________________________

[ revenue US$ 170.49 billion (2015) - net income US$ 8.11 billion (2015) ]







_________________________________________
  • "global market share of 60 percent in the zinc market"

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "and 50 percent in the copper market"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

______________________________________________________________________________

Phoebus Cartel - Wikipedia EN: LINK ¤ PHOEBUS CARTEL

_________________________________________

 

  • "the Phoebus cartel was a cartel of Osram, Philips and General Electric, among others"

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "to control the manufacture and sale of light bulbs"

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "it engaged in large-scale planned obsolescence"

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "it reduced competition in the light bulb industry for almost twenty years"

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "and worked to standardise the life expectancy of light bulbs at 1000 hours"

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "while at the same time raising prices"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

______________________________________________________________________________

Milliardenstrafe für Tabakkonzerne in Kanada - der Standard: LINK ¤ der STANDARD

_________________________________________

  • "nach einem jahrelangen Rechtsstreit sind in Kanada drei internationale Tabakkonzerne zu Rekord-Entschädigungszahlungen an Raucher in zweistelliger Milliardenhöhe verurteilt worden"

 

_________________________________________

  • "Imperial Tobacco, Rothmans Benson & Hedges und JTI-Mac Donald müssen nach diesem Urteil den mehr als eine Million Betroffenen"

 

_________________________________________

  • "15,5 Mrd. kanadische Dollar (11,3 Mrd. Euro) an Entschädigungen und Zinsen zahlen"

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "das entschied der oberste Gerichtshof der kanadischen Provinz Quebec. Es ist die höchste Entschädigungssumme, die jemals in Kanada verhängt wurde"

 

_________________________________________

  • "Richter Brian Riordan befand die Hersteller für schuldig, gegen die allgemeine Pflicht, anderen nicht zu schaden"

 

_________________________________________

  • "sowie gegen die Pflicht, seine Kunden über Risiken und Gefahren seiner Produkte aufzuklären, verstoßen zu haben"

 

 

 

 

 

______________________________________________________________________________

Apple und die aggressive Steuerflucht - der Standard: LINK ¤ der STANDARD

_________________________________________

  • "Apple baut nicht nur technische Spielereien"

 

_________________________________________

  • "das kalifornische Unternehmen hat auch ein komplexes Netz an Briefkastenfirmen und Unternehmenstöchtern gespannt"

 

_________________________________________

  • "um Steuern zu vermeiden"

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "2011 etwa machte das Unternehmen 22 Milliarden Dollar Gewinn"

 

_________________________________________

  • "zahlte aber nur zehn Millionen Dollar an Unternehmenssteuern, ein Steuersatz von 0,045 Prozent"

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "der Trick: ASI verfügt offenbar über kein steuerliches Domizil"

 

_________________________________________

  • "das Unternehmen ist zwar in Irland gegründet, ist aber weder in den USA noch in Irland steuerpflichtig"

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "dabei stößt dem US-Senat auch auf, dass Apple mit der Regierung im Dublin"

 

_________________________________________

  • "Steuersätze von unter zwei Prozent ausverhandelt hat"

 

 

_________________________________________
  • "doch Apple ist kein Einzelfall"

 

_________________________________________

  • "insgesamt halten die amerikanischen Unternehmen mehr als 1900 Mrd. Dollar an Gewinnen in ausländischen Töchtern"

 

 

 

 

 

______________________________________________________________________________

globale Steuertricks
- der Standard: LINK ¤ der STANDARD

_________________________________________

  • "wegen ihrer Tricks zur Minderung der staatlichen Abgaben waren zuletzt das Internet-Versandhaus Amazon"

 

_________________________________________

  • "die Cafekette Starbucks und der Suchmaschinenbetreiber Google in die Kritik geraten"

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "so zahlte Amazon trotz eines Umsatzes von umgerechnet 4,7 Milliarden Euro in Großbritannien"

 

_________________________________________

  • "nach eigenen Angaben im vergangenen Jahr nur 2,9 Millionen Euro Steuern"

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "Google setzte in Großbritannien von 2006 bis 2011 etwa 18 Milliarden Dollar um"

 

_________________________________________

  • "zahlte aber nur 16 Millionen Dollar an Steuern"

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "Hintergrund sind Schlupflöcher in der Steuergesetzgebung"

 

_________________________________________

  • "mit denen sich die Unternehmen in ihrer Heimat arm rechnen können"

 

 

 

 

 

______________________________________________________________________________

OECD attackiert Steuer-Schlupflöcher - der Standard: LINK ¤ der STANDARD

_________________________________________

  • "im internationalen Investmentgeschäft sind Barbados, Bermuda und die British Virgin Islands Großmächte"

 

_________________________________________

  • "4,5 Prozent aller weltweiten Auslandsinvestitionen stammen aus den drei Karibikinseln"

 

_________________________________________

  • "das ist weit mehr, als Investoren aus Deutschland oder Japan in ausländische Unternehmen anlegen"

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "diese Praktiken möchte die OECD eindämmen. Zu den Problemen, die man angehen will"

 

_________________________________________

  • "zählt insbesondere das System der Transferpreise"

 

_________________________________________

  • "innerhalb eines Konzerns können sich Tochtergesellschaften gegenseitig Produkte abkaufen"

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "die wichtigsten Prinzipien im internationalen Steuerrecht stammen aus den 1920er-Jahren und wirken heute überaltert"

 

_________________________________________

  • "das System der Transferpreise muss grundlegend überdacht werden"

 

 

 

 

 

______________________________________________________________________________

Brüssel verhängte Rekord-Kartellstrafe
- der Standard: LINK ¤ der STANDARD

_________________________________________

  • "die EU-Kommission schloss die Verfahren gegen zwei Kartelle von Herstellern von Bildröhren ab"

 

_________________________________________

  • "die Konzerne müssen zusammen insgesamt 1,47 Milliarden Euro Strafen zahlen"

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "Philips, Samsung, LG Electronics, Panasonic, Toshiba, Chunghwa und MTPD"

 

_________________________________________

  • "trafen von 1996 bis 2006 Preisabsprachen"

 

_________________________________________

  • "teilten Märkte und Kunden untereinander auf und beschränkten ihre Produktion"

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "sie gehörten zu den am besten organisierten Kartellen, die die Kommission bisher untersucht hat"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

______________________________________________________________________________

MULTINATIONAL CORPORATION
- Wikipedia EN: LINK ¤ MULTINATIONAL CORPORATION

_________________________________________

  • "morally and legally guiding behaviors of MNCs (multinational corporations), given that they are effectively "stateless" actors"

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "is one of the most urgent global socioeconomic problems"
______________________________________________________________________________





multinational corporation - 1511CO
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