Egypt



Egypt 2011-2015 - History: LINK ¤ EGYPT

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  • "on 25 January 2011, widespread protests began against Mubarak's government"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "on 11 February 2011, Mubarak resigned and fled Cairo"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "jubilant celebrations broke out in Cairo's Tahrir Square and in Egypt"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "a constitutional referendum was held in 2011, and Egypt held its first parliamentary election since the previous regime had been in power"

 

 

 

 

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  • "2013, massive protests were organised across Egypt against Morsi's rule, leading to the ousting of Morsi by the military"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "2014, the interim government instituted a new constitution following a referendum in which 98.1% of voters were supportive"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "Abdel Fattah el-Sisi the head of the Egyptian Armed Forces, resigned from the military, and was a candidate in the 2014 presidential election"

 

 

 

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  • "el-Sisi won the election"

 

 

 

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  • "even though the military-backed authorities extended voting to a third day, the turnout was only 46%"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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the new Constitution in Egypt - 2014: LINK ¤ AL-MONITOR

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  • "Amr Moussa, the chairman of the Constituent Assembly that drafted the new Constitution in Egypt"

 

 

 

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  • "advised the Muslim Brotherhood to abandon violence and to join the ranks of the opposition"

 

 


 

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  • "we are facing a legislative vacuum and therefore we need to elect a parliament that can select a government"

 

 

 

 

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  • "the new government must begin its work by building Egypt both economically and socially"

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "the new Constitution that is being put to a referendum does not exclude any political segment"

 

 

 

 

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  • "it ensures three important things: rights, freedoms and citizens' interests"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "relating to education, health, the environment"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 



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  • "the most difficult issues they faced in drafting the Constitution, were the issue of Islam's relationship to the state and policy, and the articles pertaining to the army"

 

 

 

 

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  • "the Brotherhood's constitution said that civilians could be tried in military courts for anything that harmed the armed forces"

 

 

 

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  • "this wording was broad and could be loosely interpreted"

 

 

 

 

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  • "we needed to resolve the issue, so we specified that civilians can only be tried in military courts in cases where soldiers are performing their official duties"

 

 

 

 

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  • "all of the articles relating to the army in the new Constitution are more flexible than those in the Brotherhood's constitution, which gave the military more privileges"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "the new Constitution opens the door to public freedoms and did not exclude any citizen"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "it stressed the existing freedoms of belief, opinion and thought"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "and guarantees freedom of scientific research and artistic creativity"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "when Sisi is elected, there will be a constitutional framework that he must work within"

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "that is a presidential term of four years"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "and he only has the right to run for one more term"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


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Interview with Amr Moussa - 2012: LINK ¤ SPIEGEL ONLINE

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  • "thousands of protesters again took to the streets of Cairo in protest"

 

 

 

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  • "against far-reaching new powers president Morsi has reserved for himself"

 

 

 

 

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Spiegel online: "you had been scheduled to come to Hamburg for an event to discuss the political situation in your country. Why did you cancel ?"


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  • "I have to apologize for not being there. But the crisis Egypt is currently experiencing is escalating"

 

 

 

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  • "in such a moment, I can't take the responsibility of leaving my country. Egypt has never been in such a critical state during my lifetime"

 

 

 

 

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Spiegel online: "what do you find most disconcerting ?"


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  • "the fact that president Morsi issued a constitutional decree out of the blue"

 

 

 

 

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  • "that contradicts the democratic process and would grant him almost dictatorial powers"

 

 

 

 

 

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Spiegel online: "you have announced your intention to create a collective front in opposition to Morsi"


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  • "yes. I met with several leaders from the opposition camp. They accepted my proposal to create a National Salvation Front"

 

 

 

 

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  • "what is currently taking place in Egypt represents a grave danger to the process of democratization in our country"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Interview with Amr Moussa - 2011: LINK ¤ TELEGRAPH

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  • "as the current favourite candidate in the forthcoming Egyptian presidential elections"

 

 

 

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  • "Amr Moussa set out his vision for Egypt's future"

 

 

 

 

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  • "polls suggest that between 25 and 40 per cent of Egyptians will vote for Mr. Moussa"

 

 

 

 

 

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Telegraph: "what will you do for Egypt if you become president ?"




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  • "the former regime has left Egypt in a really bad shape"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "if you live with us here, you will know how the poor people in the slums and villages are really suffering"

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "they are missing a lot of services - education, health, roads, you name it"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "our mission is to rebuild, with an agenda of democracy, reform and development"

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "democracy means basic rights and fundamental freedoms"

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "and security for all"

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "we also need to modernise, that's not about building skyscrapers"

 

 

 

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  • "but about building sewage and electricity systems, with the capacity to fix them when things go wrong"

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Telegraph: "what was your opinion of Mubarak when you were foreign minister ? Did you privately dislike him ?"




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  • "it was not a question of like or dislike, he was the president and we worked together"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "but he went through several periods, and the last was the real catastrophe"

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "when he said he planned to hand power to his son, Gamal, that was the start of the decline"

 

 

 

 

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  • "in many interviews in 2008 and 2009 I criticised the government"

 

 

 

 

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  • "and on the 19th January 2011, I warned the president that the situation (with the protests) was very serious"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Arab League Chief Amr Moussa - 2011: LINK ¤ POMED

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  • "the important question is not "who will run for president ?""

 

 

 

 

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  • "but what do citizens demand from the one who will run for president ?"

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "dealing with the situation of turmoil and discomfort in the Egyptian society is what is really needed in the first place"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "this project must aspire to a powerful cultural radiation"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "a just social system"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "and an economic breakthrough able to meet the demands of the citizens"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Egypt Report
- BBC: LINK ¤ B B C

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  • "a popular uprising in early 2011 forced President Mubarak from power"

 

 

 

 

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  • "Mubarak's rule was repressive. An emergency law in force nearly continuously since 1967 muzzled political dissent"

 

 

 

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  • "and the security forces became renowned for brutality. Corruption was widespread"

 

 

 

 

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  • "the protests that ousted President Hosni Mubarak raised hopes for democratic reform"

 

 

 

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  • "and an end to decades of repressive rule"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "however, politics became polarised between islamists on the one hand and the military on the other"

 

 

 

 

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  • "the army chief, Abdul Fattah al-Sisi, won the presidency in 2014 elections"

 

 

 

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  • "his rise has left fearing an effective return to military rule"

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "Egypt's teeming cities - and almost all agricultural activity"

 

 

 

 

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  • "are concentrated along the banks of the Nile, and on the river's delta"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Journalists oppose Editors over Freedom of Expression - the Guardian: LINK ¤ the GUARDIAN

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  • "several hundred Egyptian journalists have rejected a recent declaration by newspaper editors"

 

 

 

 

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  • "pledging near-blind support to the state"

 

 

 

 

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  • "and banning criticism of the police, army and judiciary in their publications"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "the move was designed to create a one-voiced media"

 

 

 

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  • Khaled el-Balshi of the Journalists’ Union: "300 journalists have so far signed the statement"

 

 

 

 

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  • "it is an attempt to make newspapers speak with one voice"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "the move by the editors of the newspapers was like establishing a political party in support of the regime"

 

 

 

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  • "they want to end diversity"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "it is the erosion of many of the freedoms Egyptians won"

 

 

 

 

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  • "when they rose up against Mubarak in a stunning, 18-day uprising"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "at the top of that list is the freedom to protest"

 

 

 

 

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  • "a law adopted in November 2013 criminalises any street demonstration without prior police permission"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "the declaration by the editors came in response to a call by Egypt’s president al-Sisi, for Egyptians to rally behind him"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "Egypt’s media, meanwhile, is targeting civil society groups and activists who played a key role in the 2011 uprising"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


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Human Rights Groups targeted - the Guardian: LINK ¤ the GUARDIAN

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  • "rights defenders should have to agree to government interference or face closure"

 

 

 

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  • "but after a fierce international backlash the deadline was delayed"

 

 

 

 

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  • "local and international human rights defenders, including Amnesty International, say"

 

 

 

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  • "the ultimatum is the finishing touch to a year-long crackdown on dissent"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "and an attempt to silence Egypt's remaining opposition voices"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "Mohamed Zaree - Cairo Institute for Human Rights Studies - CIHRS - one of the groups under threat":

 

 

 

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  • "the aim of the government is to shut down the public sphere"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "they want to shut down the last voices calling for accountability for human rights violations"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "since 2002, non-governmental organisations (NGO) in Egypt have been regulated by a law"

 

 

 

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  • "that gives the government the right to oversee and veto each project that an NGO carries out"

 

 

 

 

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  • "to circumvent the legislation, many NGOs register as law firms or research groups, to give themselves more freedom"

 

 

 

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  • "in July, the government ordered groups to re-register under the 2002 law within 45 days"

 

 

 

 

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  • Amnesty's deputy director for the Middle East: "the authorities' ultimatum paves the way"

 

 

 

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  • "for the closure of those that are critical of the government"

 

 

 

 

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  • "a ministry could freeze their programmes, or reject their application"

 

 

 

 

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  • "rights groups are the last significant source of opposition to the current government"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Egypt's Sisi defends Fuel Price Rise of 78% - the Guardian: LINK ¤ the GUARDIAN

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  • "Cairo's taxi and microbus drivers have staged protests in anger at a surprise rise in fuel prices"

 

 

 

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  • "roads were blocked as fleets of the city's distinctive white taxis came to a standstill"

 

 

 

 

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  • "Egyptians woke up on Saturday to the news that petrol prices had risen by up to 78%"

 

 

 

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  • "part of a broader swath of price increases"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "successive governments have avoided such a decision, fearful of a potential backlash"

 

 

 

 

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  • "from a population already faced with rising food prices and an unemployment rate of 13.4 percent"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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US Aid to Egypt - the Guardian: LINK ¤ the GUARDIAN

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  • "US Secretary of State John Kerry rewarded Egypt"

 

 

 

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  • "by releasing US$ 250m in American aid to support the country's "future as a democracy""

 

 

 

 

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  • "the US diplomat announced US$ 60m for a new fund for "direct support of key engines of democratic change""

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "there is a deep concern about the political course of the country"

 

 

 

 

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  • "the need to strengthen human rights protections, justice and the rule of law"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "and the need for consensus with the opposition in order to restore confidence"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "Egyptians who rose up and overthrew Mubarak"

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "did not risk their lives"

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "to see that opportunity for a brighter future squandered"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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-
Capital: Cairo
- [ GoE = Government of Egypt ]


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US Trade - US cable - 2009: LINK ¤ 09CAIRO2237

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  • "the US goods trade surplus with Egypt was US$ 3.6 billion"

 

 

 

 

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  • "an increase of US$ 690 million"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "US goods exports were US$ 6.0 billion, up 12.8 percent from the previous year"

 

 

 

 

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  • "corresponding US imports from Egypt were US$ 2.4 billion, down 0.3 percent"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "in recent years, the Egyptian government has gradually liberalized its trade regime"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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US Investment - US cable - 2010: LINK ¤ 10CAIRO245

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  • "the key US objectives with Egypt are"

 

 

 

 

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  • "deepening bilateral trade and investment"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "increasing US exports to Egypt"

 

 

 

 

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  • "supporting qualifying industrial zones - QIZ (free trade zones)"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "reduce non-tariff trade barriers"

 

 

 

 

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  • "particularly in agricultural products"

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "the US interagency strategy includes gathering key Egypt stakeholders"

 

 

 

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  • "offering technical assistance, and visits by high-level US officials"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Financial Sector - US cable - 2009: LINK ¤ 09CAIRO1309

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  • "the new Egyptian Financial Supervisory Authority"

 

 

 

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  • "which USAID helped design [us aid agency]"

 

 

 

 

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  • "should facilitate Egypt's integration with the global financial system"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Energy - US cable - 2009: LINK ¤ 09CAIRO862

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  • "Bechtel (US company) may have overplayed their hand"

 

 

 

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  • "their negotiating tactics were not as effective as they intended"

 

 

 

 

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  • "the Egyptian Nuclear Power Plants Authority (NPPA)"

 

 

 

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  • "awarded Bechtel power corporation a 10-year contract worth US$ 188 million"

 

 

 

 

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  • "to consult on and help design Egypt's first nuclear power plant"

 

 

 

 

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  • "the issue of nuclear insurance liability:"

 

 

 

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  • "Bechtel wanted limited liability"

 

 

 

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  • "Egypt wanted no ceiling on liability"

 

 

 

 

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  • "both sides agreed on a "sub cap" of US$ 200 million"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Foreign Minister Gheit - US cable - 2009: LINK ¤ 09STATE14421

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  • "Egypt's Foreign Minister Aboul Gheit, meeting the new US Secretary Clinton, hoped"

 

 

 

 

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  • "that the "very difficult" eight-year period"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "in the relationship was over"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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US Security - US cable - 2009: LINK ¤ 09CAIRO549

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  • "Egypt's military leaders consider the US$ 1.3 billion in annual FMF (US foreign military financing)"

 

 

 

 

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  • "as untouchable compensation"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "for making and maintaining peace with Israel"

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "and the US military enjoys priority access to the Suez Canal"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "and the Egyptian airspace"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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April 6 Movement - US cable - 2009:
LINK ¤ 09CAIRO1464

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  • ""April 6" is a small, youth-based movement which advocates replacing the current regime"

 

 

 

 

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  • "through a peaceful transition to democracy"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "for a weaker presidency and an empowered parliament and prime minister"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "the movement organized a successful strike in Cairo on April 6, 2008"

 

 

 

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  • "to protest price increases and political and economic conditions"

 

 

 

 

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  • "the Egyptian government has arrested and tortured "April 6" members"

 

 

 

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  • "and has prevented the group from staging public demonstrations"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Civil Society - US cable - 2009: LINK ¤ 09CAIRO330

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  • "civil society activists discussed democratic reform in Egypt"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "Hisham Kassem, Egyptian Organization for Human Rights, "called for establishing an independent judiciary"

 

 

 

 

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  • "a credible independent news media"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "a more effective parliament"

 

 

 

 

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  • "and a stronger prime minister"

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • Bahey Al-Din Hassan, Cairo Institute for Human Rights:

 

 

 

 

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  • "human rights movements are growing throughout the region"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "governments feel threatened and are pushing back"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Transfer of Power - US cable - 2009: LINK ¤ 09CAIRO1468

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  • "NDP [mubarak-party] insider and former minister Dr. Ali El Deen Hilal Dessouki:"

 

 

 

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  • "Egyptian military and security services"

 

 

 

 

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  • "would ensure a smooth transfer of power"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "even to a civilian"

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "military is concerned about maintaining its "corporate interests""

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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El Baradei - US cable - 2009: LINK ¤ 09CAIRO2279

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  • "former chairman of the IAEA Mohammed El Baradei's statement"

 

 

 

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  • "outlined the "built-in conditions for a free and fair election""

 

 

 

 

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  • "Egypt needed an interim government with a council of experts to draft a new constitution"

 

 

 

 

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  • "a new and "neutral" election commission"

 

 

 

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  • "full judicial supervision of the elections"

 

 

 

 

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  • "international monitoring"

 

 

 

 

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  • "and equal access to state media for all candidates"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Bloggers - US cable - 2009: LINK ¤ 09CAIRO544

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  • "Egypt’s bloggers are playing an increasingly important role"

 

 

 

 

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  • "in broadening the scope of political and social discourse"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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informal Housing - US cable - 2009: LINK ¤ 09CAIRO417

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  • "prices for high end housing for the wealthiest five percent of the population"

 

 

 

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  • "have skyrocketed in the last few years"

 

 

 

 

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  • "but there remains a chronic housing shortage for the low and middle-income"

 

 

 

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  • "with a four million unit shortfall"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "Cairo residents have increasingly turned to informal housing solutions"

 

 

 

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  • "which are dangerous and unregulated"

 

 

 

 

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  • "there is very little room to build anywhere in Cairo's center, so the only choice is to build in the periphery"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "informal housing has become the norm"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Goldstone Report - US cable - 2009: LINK ¤ 09CAIRO1997

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  • "human rights contacts expressed to us"

 

 

 

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  • "their deep disappointment of the US position on the Goldstone report (UN Gaza report)"

 

 

 

 

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  • "Egyptian Initiative for Personal Rights executive director Hossam Bahgat:"

 

 

 

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  • "the US policy on the report is sad and unfortunate"

 

 

 

 

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  • "the US gave up a tool to pressure Israel into negotiations"

 

 

 

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  • "the US position undermined international justice"

 

 

 

 

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  • "and showed that the US values Israel's political needs over those of the Palestinians"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "Cairo Institute for Human Rights Studies (CIHRS) director Bahey Al-Din Hassan:"

 

 

 

 

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  • "Israel should not be treated differently"

 

 

 

 

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  • "than other human rights violators"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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close US Relationship with Egyptian President - the Guardian: LINK ¤ the GUARDIAN

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  • "Mubarak is a tried and true realist, innately cautious and conservative, and has little time for idealistic goals"

 

 

 

 

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  • "Mubarak viewed President Bush as naive, controlled by subordinates"

 

 

 

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  • "and totally unprepared for dealing with post-Saddam Iraq"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "Washington provides Cairo US$ 1.3bn annually in foreign military finance (FMF)"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "to purchase US weapons and defence equipment"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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restriktive Politik der ägyptischen Regierung gegen die Zivilgesellschaft - der Standard: LINK ¤ der STANDARD

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  • "die Meldungen von Nichtregierungsorganisationen (NGOs), die ihre Arbeit einstellen, häufen sich"

 

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  • "der Grund liegt in einem restriktiven NGO-Gesetz, das Abweichungen von der von Präsident al-Sisi vorgegebenen Linie nicht zulässt"

 

 

 

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  • "die Kritikpunkte betreffen das rigorose Demonstrationsgesetz, seit dessen Inkrafttreten dutzende politische Aktivisten hohe Gefängnisstrafen erhielten"

 

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  • "ebenso wie das umstrittene NGO-Gesetz aus der Mubarak-Zeit"

 

 

 

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  • "sowie Einschränkungen der Rede- und Meinungsfreiheit"

 

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  • "Behörden können ohne Gerichtsbeschluss NGOs schließen, ihr Vermögen konfiszieren"

 

 

 

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  • "nach Meinung vieler Aktivisten dient das Gesetz dazu, die Zivilgesellschaft zu knebeln"

 

 

 

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  • "betroffen sind vor allem NGOs, die sich mit der Lage der Menschenrechte befassen"

 

 

 

 

 

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Amr Moussa - Wikipedia EN: LINK ¤ MOUSSA

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ex-Generalsekretär der Arabischen Liga nennt arabischen Umbruch unumkehrbar - der Standard: LINK ¤ der STANDARD

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  • "der Wandel in der arabischen Welt ist das Gebot der Stunde"

 

 

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  • "wobei es in Richtung dessen geht, was wir Demokratie nennen"

 

 

 

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  • "sollte er Präsident werden, so will Mussa mit Israel einen Neuanfang suchen, jedoch nicht im Alleingang, sondern nur im arabischen Verbund"

 

 

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  • "man muss endlich Lösungen finden, vor allem für die Palästinenser"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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EGYPT - Wikipedia EN: LINK ¤ EGYPT

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  • "Egypt, officially Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa"

 

 

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  • "and southwest corner of Asia, via a land bridge formed by the Sinai peninsula"

 

 

 

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  • "it is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, the Gaza Strip and Israel to the northeast, the Gulf of Aqaba to the east, the Red Sea to the east and south, Sudan to the south and Libya to the west"

 

 

 

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  • Population: 89.3 million

 

 

 

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Maṣr - Wikipedia ARZ: LINK ¤ MASR
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Egypt - Map: LINK ¤ WIKIMEDIA
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egypt - 14115EG
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