Europe History




450 BCE - Herodutus:


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  • "the Ister river has its source in the country of the Celts near the city Pyrene, and runs through the middle of Europe, dividing it into two portions"

 

 

 

 

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  • "the Celts live beyond the pillars of Hercules, and border on the Cynesians, who dwell at the extreme west of Europe"

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "thus the Ister flows through the whole of Europe before it finally empties itself into the Euxine at Istria, one of the colonies of the Milesians"

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "the Pillars of Hercules upon the Ocean: now some say that the Ocean begins in the east, and runs the whole way round the world"

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "persons are drawing maps of the world, making the ocean-stream to run all round the Earth"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "and the Earth itself to be an exact circle"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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400 BCE - Plutarch - the Celtic Women:


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  • "before the Celts crossed over the Alps and settled in that part of Italy which is now their home, persistent factional discord broke out among them"

 

 

 

 

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  • "the women, however taking up the controversies, arbitrated and decided them with such irreproachable fairness"

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "that a wondrous friendship of all towards all was brought about between both states and families"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "as the result of this they continued to consult with the women to decide through them any disputed matters in their relations with their allies"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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400 BCE - Diodorus Siculus:


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  • "at the time that Dionysius was besieging Rhegium, the Celts who had their homes in the regions beyond the Alps streamed through the passes in great strength"

 

 

 

 

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  • "and seized the territory that lay between the Apennine mountains and the Alps, expelling the Tyrrhenians who dwelt there"

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "these, according to some, were colonists from the twelve cities of Tyrrhenia"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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100 BCE - Cicero:


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  • "if all the parts of the universe are so constituted that nothing could be better for use or beauty"

 

 

 

 

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  • "let us consider whether this is the effect of chance, or whether, in such a state they could possibly cohere"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "but by the direction of wisdom and divine providence"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "Celts people say the universe, from whence all things arise and are made, is not the effect of chance, or some necessity"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "but the work of reason and a divine mind"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "according to them, Archimedes shows more knowledge in representing the motions of the celestial globe than nature does in causing them"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "though the copy is so infinitely beneath the original"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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86 BCE - Cicero to Trebatius Testa in Britain:

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  • "in Britain I am told there is no gold or silver"

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "if that turns out to be the case, I advise you to capture a war-chariot and hasten back to us at the earliest opportunity"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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86 BCE - Cicero to Trebatius Testa in Gaul:


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  • "Caesar has written me a very courteous letter"

 

 

 

 

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  • "I have answered his letter"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "but at the same time I wondered why you despised the profits of a military tribuneship"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "especially as you are exempted from the labour of military duty"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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54 BCE - Cicero to his brother Quintus in Gaul:


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  • "I received a letter from Caesar filled full of courteous, and pleasant expressions"

 

 

 

 

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  • "these expressions are indeed valuable, or rather "most" valuable, as tending very powerfully to secure our reputation and exalted position in that state"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "what I value most in all this, is that warm affection of Caesar for me, which I prefer to all the honours which he desires me to expect at his hands"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "I am now indeed forward enough to do so, to concentrate all my attentions upon him alone"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "like travellers when they make great haste, who, if they have got up later than they intended, have, by increasing their speed, arrived at their destination sooner than if they had waked up before daylight"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "there is some latent idea of a dictatorship here in Rome"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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54 BCE - Cicero to Atticus in Rome:


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  • "the two plebeian candidates have advantages which make them about equal: Domitius Calvinus is strong in friends, and is farther supported by his very popular exhibition of gladiators"

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "Memmius finds favour with Caesar's veterans and relies on Pompey's client towns in Gaul"

 

 

 

 

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  • "if this does not avail him, people think that some tribune will be found to push off the elections till Caesar comes back"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "from my brother's letter I gather surprising indications of Caesar's affection for me"

 

 

 

 

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  • "and they have been confirmed by a very cordial letter from Caesar himself"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "the result of the British war is a source of anxiety. For it is ascertained that the approaches to the island"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "are protected by astonishing masses of cliff"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "moreover, it is now known that there isn't a pennyweight of silver in that island"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "nor any hope of booty except from slaves"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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54 BCE - Cicero to Atticus in Rome:


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  • "the "campus" bribery is raging. The rate of interest from being four percent, has gone up to eight percent"

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "Memmius is supported by all Caesar's influence. The consuls have formed a coalition between him and Domitius on terms which I dare not commit to paper"

 

 

 

 

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  • "Pompey rages, remonstrates, backs Scaurus, but whether only ostensibly or from the heart people don't feel sure"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "money reduces all to the same level"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "and, if they are conducted without corruption, Cato by himself will have been more efficacious than all laws and jurors put together"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "many unmistakable indications enable us to feel sure that we are in the highest degree liked and valued by Caesar"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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54 BCE - Cicero to his brother Quintus in Britain:


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  • "as to public affairs, I have written to you hitherto somewhat more carelessly than usual"

 

 

 

 

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  • "because I knew that all events, small or great, were reported to Caesar"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "I received a letter from my brother and from Caesar from Britain"

 

 

 

 

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  • "Britain done with ... hostages taken, ... no booty"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "a tribute imposed"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "they were on the point of bringing back the army"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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50 BCE - King Alfred - Book VI:


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  • "in the year of Rome 677, the Romans gave Julius Caesar the command of seven legions to carry on the war for five winters in Gaul"

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "after he had conquered these nataions, he went into the island of Brittonie, where fighting with the Bryttas"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "he was defeated in that part of the country which is called Centland"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "soon after this he had a second engagement with the Brytas, in Centland"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "their third battle was near the river that men call the Temese, after which, not only all the inhabitants of Cyrnceastre submitted, but the whole island"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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50 BCE - Nennius:


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  • "the Romans, having obtained the dominion of the world, sent legates or deputies to the Britons"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "to demand of them hostages and tribute"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "which they received from all other countries and islands"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "but they treated the legation with contempt"

 

 

 

 

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  • "then Caesar, the first who had acquired absolute power at Rome, highly incensed against the Britons"

 

 

 

 

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  • "sailed with sixty vessels to the mouth of the Thames, where they suffered shipwreck"

 

 

 

 

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  • "and thus Caesar returned home without victory"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "after three years he again appeared with a large army, and three hundred ships, at the mouth of the Thames, where he renewed hostilities"

 

 

 

 

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  • "Caesar was once more compelled to return without victory"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "the Romans, therefore, sent a third time against the Britons; and defeated them near a place called Trinovantum (London)"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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50 BCE - Plutarch:


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  • "Caesar's military force was like a body that invested him, he was training it to toil"

 

 

 

 

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  • "he was disciplining his men in these contests just as if it were merely hunting wild beasts and pursuing them with dogs"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "in the meantime he was sending to Rome gold and silver"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "after taking hostages from the King and imposing a tribute"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "he retired from the Britain island"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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50 BCE - Suetonius Tranquillus:


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  • "Caesar reduced all Gaul, bounded by the Pyrenean forest, the Alps, mount Gebenna, and the two rivers, the Rhine and the Rhone, and being about three thousand two hundred miles encompass"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "into the form of a province"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "imposing an annual tribute of forty millions of sesterces"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "he also invaded the Britons, a people formerly unknown"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "in hopes of finding pearls, gems, carved works, statues, pictures, and slaves"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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50 BCE - Velleius Paterculus:


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  • "in Gaul, Caesar was slaying or taking as prisoners countless thousands of the enemy"

 

 

 

 

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  • "he even crossed into Britain, seeking to add another world to our empire"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "in his lust for money and his ambition for glory he knew no limits, and accepted no bounds"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "more than four hundred thousand of the enemy were slain by Caesar"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "and a greater number were taken prisoners"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "at no period was the Roman empire more flourishing"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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80 - Tacitus - Britain:


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  • "Britain, the largest of all the islands which have come within the knowledge of the Romans, stretches on the east towards Germany, on the west towards Spain, and on the south it is even within sight of Gaul"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "its northern extremity has no opposite land, but is washed by a wide and open sea"

 

 

 

 

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  • "the sea is to be sluggish and laborious to the rower; and even to be scarcely agitated by winds"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "the sky in this country is formed by clouds and frequent rains; but the cold is never extremely rigorous"

 

 

 

 

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  • "the soil, though improper for olive, the vine, and other productions of warmer climates, is fertile, and suitable for corn"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "who were the first inhabitants of Britain, whether indigenous or immigrants, is a question involved in the obscurity usual among barbarians"

 

 

 

 

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  • "their temperament of body is various, whence deductions are formed of their different origin"

 

 

 

 

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  • "they who are nearest Gaul resemble the inhabitants of that country"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "the sacred rites and superstitions of these people are discernible among the Britons"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "the Britons were formerly governed by kings, but at present they are divided in factions and parties among their chiefs"

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "and this want of union for concerting some general plan is the most favorable circumstance to us"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "it is seldom that two or three communities concur in repelling the common danger; and thus, while they engage singly, they are all subdued"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "the Britons cheerfully submit to levies, tributes, and the other services"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "if they are not treated injuriously"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • "their subjection only extending to obedience, not to servitude"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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the MATTER of EUROPE - Edwin Hopper - PDF: LINK ¤ MATTER EUROPE



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HISTORY of EUROPE
- Wikipedia EN:
LINK ¤ HISTORY EUROPE


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