Democracy






  • "democracy is a system of government"

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

 

  • "in which all the people of a state are involved in making decisions about its affairs"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "typically by voting to elect representatives to a parliament or similar assembly"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "democracy is defined as: government by the people !"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "a government in which the supreme power is vested in the people and exercised by them directly or indirectly through a system of representation"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

Democracy consists of four key Elements:





_________________________________________

 

  • "a political system for choosing and replacing the government through free and fair elections"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "the active participation of the people - as citizens - in politics and civic life"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "protection of the human rights of all citizens"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "a rule of law, in which the laws and procedures apply equally to all citizens"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "the term originates from the Greek "demokratia" - meaning "rule of the people""

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "which was found in the 5th century BC to denote the political systems then existing in Greek city-states"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

______________________________________________________________________________


DIRECT DEMOCRACY
:





_________________________________________

 

  • "direct democracy is a political system"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "where the citizens participate in the decision-making personally !"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "contrary to relying on intermediaries or representatives"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

direct Democracy gives the voting Population the Power to:






_________________________________________

 

  • "change constitutional laws"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "put forth initiatives, referendums and suggestions for laws"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "give binding orders to elective officials, such as revoking them before the end of their elected term"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "or initiating a lawsuit for breaking a campaign promise"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "within modern-day representative governments, certain electoral tools like referendums, citizens' initiatives and recall elections are referred to as forms of direct democracy"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "direct democracy as a government system currently exists in the Swiss cantons of Appenzell Innerrhoden and Glarus"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "in direct democracy citizens vote directly, not through their representatives, on legislative proposals"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "political activity is valuable in itself, it socialises and educates citizens"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "popular participation can check powerful elites"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "most importantly, citizens do not really rule themselves unless they directly decide laws and policies"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________





Transparency International
: LINK ¤ TRANSPARENCY

_________________________________________

  • "Transparency International - TI - is a non-governmental organization that monitors and publicizes corporate and political corruption"

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "it publishes an annual Global Corruption Barometer and Corruption Perceptions Index, a comparative listing of corruption worldwide"

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "corruption is the abuse of entrusted power for private gain"

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "it can be classified as grand, petty and political, depending on the amounts of money lost and the sector where it occurs"

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "grand corruption consists of acts committed at a high level of government that distort policies or the central functioning of the state, enabling leaders to benefit at the expense of the public good"

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "political corruption is a manipulation of policies, institutions and rules of procedure in the allocation of resources and financing by political decision makers, who abuse their position to sustain their power, status and wealth"

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "transparency is about shedding light on rules, plans, processes and actions. It is knowing why, how, what, and how much"

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "transparency ensures that public officials, civil servants, managers and board members act visibly and understandably, and report on their activities"

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "and it means that the general public can hold them to account"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

______________________________________________________________________________

openDemocracy: LINK ¤ OPEN DEMOCRACY

_________________________________________

  • "openDemocracy is a website for debate about international politics and culture"

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "offering news and opinion articles from established academics, journalists and policymakers"

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "it is committed to human rights and democracy"

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "openDemocracy is an independent, public interest, not-for-profit; a counter to the corporate media"

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "it seeks out and debates forms of democratic change"

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "it supports pluralist inclusion without populism and tries to a give voice to those marginalised"

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "it opposes fundamentalisms, including market fundamentalism"

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "it regards the freedom and liberty of others as our own"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________





Universal Declaration of Human Rights
- United Nations
: LINK ¤ UNITED NATIONS

_________________________________________

 

  • "the Universal Declaration of Human Rights - UDHR - is a declaration adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 10 December 1948 in Paris"

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "the Declaration represents the first global expression of rights to which all human beings are inherently entitled"

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • Article 1: "all human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights"

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "they are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • Article 3: "everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of person"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • Article 7: "all are equal before the law and are entitled without any discrimination to equal protection of the law"

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • Article 18: "everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion"

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • Article 19: "everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression"

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers"

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • Article 20: "everyone has the right to freedom of peaceful assembly and association"

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • Article 22: "everyone, as a member of society, has the right to social security"

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "and is entitled to realization of the economic, social and cultural rights indispensable for his dignity and the free development of his personality"

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • Article 29: "everyone has duties to the community in which alone the free and full development of his personality is possible"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

 

______________________________________________________________________________

European Convention on Human Rights
- ECHR:
LINK ¤ E C H R

_________________________________________

 

  • "the European Convention on Human Rights - ECHR - is an international treaty to protect human rights and fundamental freedoms in Europe"

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "drafted in 1950, the convention entered into force on 3 September 1953. All 47 Council of Europe member states are party to the Convention"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "any person who feels his or her rights have been violated under the Convention by a state party"

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "can take a case to the Court"

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "judgments finding violations are binding on the States concerned and they are obliged to execute them"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "the European Convention is still the only international human rights agreement providing such a high degree of individual protection"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "considering that the aim of the Council of Europe is the achievement of greater unity between its members"

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "and that one of the methods by which that aim is to be pursued is the maintenance and further realisation of human rights and fundamental freedoms"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "reaffirming their profound belief in those fundamental freedoms which are the foundation of justice and peace in the world"

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "and are best maintained on the one hand by an effective political democracy"

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "and on the other by a common understanding and observance of the human rights upon which they depend"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "being resolved, as the governments of European countries which are like-minded and have a common heritage"

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "of political traditions, ideals, freedom and the rule of law"

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "to take the first steps for the collective enforcement of certain of the rights stated in the Universal Declaration"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • Article 2 - Right to Life: "everyone's right to life shall be protected by law"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • Article 19 - Establishment of the Court: "to ensure the observance of the engagements undertaken by the High Contracting Parties in the Convention and the Protocols thereto"

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "there shall be set up a European Court of Human Rights"

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "hereinafter referred to as "the Court". It shall function on a permanent basis"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

 

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________





Declaration of Human Duties and Responsibilities
- Inter Action Council:
LINK ¤ INTER ACTION COUNCIL

_________________________________________

 

  • "the Declaration of Human Duties and Responsibilities - DHDR - was written for reinforcing the implementation of human rights under the auspices of the UNESCO"

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "and was proclaimed in 1998 to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights - UDHR - in the city of Valencia"

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "therefore, it is also known as the Valencia Declaration"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "considering that the major challenge for this new century is the effective and efficient realisation of human rights for all people"

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "and that at the same time is needed that all members of the human family strive for its fulfilment"

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "the DHDR formulates related duties and responsibilities for our current interdependence"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "the point of departure of the DHDR Preamble is the shared concern regarding the lack of political will"

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "for enforcing globally human rights"

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "moreover, the DHDR takes into account the new challenges of the global scenario for translating semantically rights into duties and responsibilities"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "globalization of the world economy is matched by global problems"

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "they demand global solutions on the basis of ideas, values and norms respected by all cultures and societies"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "recognition of the equal and inalienable rights of all the people requires a foundation of freedom, justice and peace"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "but this also demands that rights and responsibilities be given equal importance to establish an ethical base"

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "so that all men and women can live peacefully together and fulfil their potential"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "a better social order both nationally and internationally needs a global ethic"

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "human aspirations for progress can only be realised by agreed values and standards applying to all people and institutions at all times"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • Preamble: "whereas recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world"

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "and implies obligations or responsibilities"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "whereas the exclusive insistence on rights can result in conflict, division, and endless dispute, and the neglect of human responsibilities can lead to lawlessness"

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "whereas the rule of law and the promotion of human rights depend on the readiness of men and women to act justly"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "whereas global problems demand global solutions"

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "which can only be achieved through ideas, values, and norms respected by all cultures and societies"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "whereas all people, to the best of their knowledge and ability, have a responsibility to foster a better social order"

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "both at home and globally"

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "whereas human aspirations for progress and improvement can only be realized by agreed values and standards applying to all people and institutions at all times"

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "every individual and every organ of society shall contribute to the advancement of communities and to the enlightenment of all their members"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "we, the peoples of the world thus renew and reinforce commitments already proclaimed in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights:"

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "namely, the full acceptance of the dignity of all people; their inalienable freedom and equality"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "and their solidarity with one another"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

______________________________________________________________________________

 

  • Article 1: "every person, regardless of gender, ethnic origin, social status, political opinion, language, age, nationality, or religion"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "has a responsibility to treat all people in a humane way"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • Article 2: "no person should lend support to any form of inhumane behavior"

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "but all people have a responsibility to strive for the dignity and self-esteem of all others"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • Article 3: "no person, no group or organization, no state, no army or police stands above good and evil; all are subject to ethical standards"

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "everyone has a responsibility to promote good and to avoid evil in all things"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • Article 4: "all people, endowed with reason and conscience, must accept a responsibility to each and all, to families and communities, to races, nations, and religions in a spirit of solidarity:"

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "what you do not wish to be done to yourself, do not do to others"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • Article 7: "every person is infinitely precious and must be protected unconditionally"

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "animals and the natural environment also demand protection"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "all people have a responsibility to protect the air, water and soil of the earth for the sake of present inhabitants"

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "and future generations"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • Article 8: "every person has a responsibility to behave with integrity, honesty and fairness"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • Article 9: "every person has a responsibility to speak and act truthfully"

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "no one, however high or mighty, should speak lies"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • Article 10: "the freedom of the media to inform the public and to criticize institutions of society and governmental actions, which is essential for a just society, must be used with responsibility and discretion"

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "freedom of the media carries a special responsibility for accurate and truthful reporting"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • Article 11: "all people have a responsibility to make serious efforts"

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "to overcome poverty, malnutrition, and inequality"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "they should promote sustainable development all over the world"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "in order to assure dignity, freedom, security and justice for all people"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

______________________________________________________________________________

Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen - 1789:
LINK ¤ CITIZEN RIGHTS

_________________________________________

 

  • "the Declaration of the rights of Man and of the Citizen, passed by France's National Constituent Assembly in August 1789"

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "is a fundamental document in the history of human and civil rights"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "influenced by the doctrine of "natural right", the rights of man are held to be universal:"

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "valid at all times and in every place, pertaining to human nature itself"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • Article 1: "men are born and remain free and equal in rights"

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "social distinctions can be founded only on the common good"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • Article 4: "liberty consists of doing anything which does not harm others"

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • Article 11: "the free communication of thoughts and of opinions is one of the most precious rights of man"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

 

______________________________________________________________________________

Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen - 1791: LINK ¤ OLYMPE DE GOUGES

_________________________________________

 

  • "woman is born free and remains equal to man in rights"

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "social distinctions may be based only on common utility"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

______________________________________________________________________________

United States Declaration of Independence
- 1776
: LINK ¤ US INDEPENDENCE

_________________________________________

 

  • "we hold these truths to be self-evident"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "that all men are created equal"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

_________________________________________

  • "that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 



 

______________________________________________________________________________

DEMOCRACY
- Wikipedia EN: LINK ¤ DEMOCRACY

______________________________________________________________________________




democracy - 061DE
designed by Free CSS Templates | powerd by pluck | hosted by akis